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BACKGROUND Roughly, 10% of elderly patients develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction. General anesthesia impairs spatial memory in aged rats, but the mechanism is not known. Hippocampal neurogenesis affects spatial learning and memory in rats, and isoflurane affects neurogenesis in neonatal and young adult rats. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetic agents cause cell death in the developing rodent brain and long-term, mostly hippocampal-dependent, neurocognitive dysfunction. However, a causal link between these findings has not been shown. Postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis affects hippocampal function into adulthood; therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that isoflurane(More)
The olfactory system is divided into processing channels (glomeruli), each receiving input from a different type of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). Here we investigated how glomeruli combine to control behavior in freely walking Drosophila. We found that optogenetically activating single ORN types typically produced attraction, although some ORN types(More)
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