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BACKGROUND Investigations of oral ethanol self-administration in nonhuman primates have revealed important parallels with human alcohol use and abuse, yet many fundamental questions concerning the individual risk to, and the biological basis of, excessive ethanol consumption remain unanswered. Moreover, many conditions of access to ethanol in nonhuman(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly useful in children. Because of technical considerations and safety concerns, critically ill children have frequently been excluded from MRI. We have accomplished safely both transport and MRI in 21 patients from paediatric intensive care units (ICU). Three children were not considered appropriate for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE It was found that glutamate, a major neurotransmitter, is vasoactive in the cerebral circulation. However, the mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in cerebral arteriolar dilation to glutamate. METHODS Newborn, chloralose-anesthetized(More)
Peripheral nerve injury may lead to a chronic neuropathic pain state that results from an increase in excitability of central neurons. This central sensitization is mediated via an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). As NO is suggested to play a role in nociceptive transmission following nerve(More)
Many postmenopausal women question whether to start or continue hormone therapy because of recent clinical trial negative results. However, evidence from other studies of postmenopausal women, and from studies in menopausal monkeys, indicate that estrogen has neurocognitive protective effects, particularly when therapy is initiated close to the time of(More)
The present study examined the long-term (2 years) effects of estrogen loss or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and on cholinergic fibers in the prefrontal and parietal cortex of adult female cynomolgus monkeys. Cholinergic fiber density in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was decreased in monkeys(More)
We examined the effects of total global ischemia on cerebral arteriolar responses to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in anesthetized newborn pigs. Arteriolar responses to 10(-4) M NMDA were determined before and after 10 to 20 min of ischemia caused by increasing intracranial pressure. Before ischemia, NMDA dilated arterioles by 30 +/- 5% (baseline = 88 +/- 2(More)
BACKGROUND Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening and frequently fatal disorder triggered by commonly used anesthetics. MH susceptibility is a genetically determined predisposition to the development of MH. Mutations in the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1) gene are the major cause of MH susceptibility. The authors sought to develop a reliable(More)