Joseph R. Sands

Learn More
This prospective research investigated the occurrence and persistence of depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. The research goals were to (1) compare depression in schizophrenia with that in schizoaffective and major depressive disorders, (2) assess whether some schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to depression, and (3) assess the(More)
We studied 276 patients longitudinally, beginning at the acute phase and continuing at three successive followups over 7.5 years, comparing 74 schizophrenia patients with 74 other psychotic patients and 128 nonpsychotic patients on early course and outcome. Schizophrenia patients showed significantly poorer functioning than patients with other psychotic(More)
To investigate the presence of a full depressive syndrome in schizophrenia years after the acute phase and factors linked to these depressive syndromes, 75 schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients and 32 patients with bipolar affective disorders were studied prospectively at index hospitalization and followed up 4.5 years later as part of the Chicago(More)
This research studied hypotheses that positive thought disorder in schizophrenia is influenced by patients' not taking in immediate target contextual material, thereby losing vital cues that guide thought processes. We assessed 164 acute inpatients (including 55 schizophrenia and 31 bipolar disorder patients), using standardized measures of thought(More)
This study investigated the nature, independence, and stability of schizophrenia's syndrome factors and depression at 2, 4.5, 7.5 and 10 years post-index hospitalization. At the four follow-ups, 71 patients (48 with schizophrenia and 23 with schizoaffective disorder) were assessed for symptoms hypothesized to constitute the reality distortion, disorganized,(More)
OBJECTIVE This research examined whether deficits in premorbid functioning are associated with a vulnerability to psychosis in unipolar major depressive disorder. METHOD A group of 92 inpatients with unipolar major depression were assessed for premorbid functioning and psychotic symptoms during an index hospitalization. They were prospectively assessed(More)
Modern techniques have been applied to brain modeling, based on recent approaches in the artificial intelligence field that use brain-like "connectionistic" computational architectures. The model proposed by Cohen and Servan-Schreiber uses a gain parameter which they identify with dopamine function. They apply their model to neuroleptically treated(More)
The authors assessed 47 formerly hospitalized manic patients for thought disorder 2-4 years after discharge and studied the relationship between thought disorder and other major clinical variables. Fourteen (30%) of the manic patients showed severe positive thought disorder 2-4 years after hospitalization. Partial correlations and multiple regression(More)
This research used a prospective longitudinal design to study differences in vulnerability to delusions over time in 234 subjects with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar or unipolar affective disorder. Patients were assessed at three successive followups over a 7- to 8-year period. Over 60 percent of the schizophrenia and schizoaffective(More)
1. Solutions of ethylhydrocupreine (optochin) hydrochloride show a pronounced bactericidal activity for pneumococci in pleural pus. 2. The highest tolerated dose of ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride for guinea pigs by intrapleural injection is about 0.2 to 0.3 cc. of a 1:100 solution per 100 gm. of weight, corresponding to 2 to 3 cc. of solution or 0.02 to(More)