Joseph R Difranza

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OBJECTIVE To determine if there is a minimum duration, frequency or quantity of tobacco use required to develop symptoms of dependence. DESIGN AND SETTING A retrospective/prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of tobacco dependence employing individual interviews conducted three times annually in two urban school systems over 30 months.(More)
CONTEXT It has not been determined if a youth's reaction to the first smoking experience is predictive of future nicotine dependence, or whether the impact of the first cigarette can be altered by manipulating levels of tar, nicotine and menthol. OBJECTIVE To determine if the recalled response to the first cigarette is predictive of the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Although many sociodemographic and psychosocial factors have been identified as related to adolescent smoking, few studies have examined the role of nicotine-dependence (ND) symptoms. The objective was to study the association between ND symptoms and smoking status among adolescents in the early stages of the smoking onset process. METHODS The(More)
Recent reports suggest that nicotine withdrawal symptoms are common among adolescents after a few weeks of intermittent tobacco use. No current model of nicotine dependence had predicted the rapid development of symptoms of dependence and withdrawal before the development of tolerance. We present a model that integrates neuroscience with clinical(More)
CONTEXT There is no validated, theory-based tool for assessing the onset of nicotine dependence. However, the use of all addictive substances can result in a loss of autonomy. We propose that nicotine dependence begins when autonomy is lost, ie, when the sequelae of tobacco use, either physical or psychological, present a barrier to quitting. OBJECTIVES(More)
OBJECTIVE To extend the findings of the first Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth study by using diagnostic criteria for tobacco dependence and a biochemical measure of nicotine intake. The first study found that symptoms of dependence commonly appeared soon after the onset of intermittent smoking. DESIGN A 4-year prospective study.(More)
Despite a rich neuroscience literature on sensitization, this phenomenon has been neglected in clinical nicotine research. This paper offers a primer on the neuroscience of nicotine sensitization for behavioral scientists, identifying key concepts, potential theoretical and clinical implications, and directions for future research. Sensitization to a drug(More)
The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) is a 10-item screening tool originally developed to assess loss of autonomy over tobacco in adolescent smokers. A smoker's endorsement of any item indicates some loss of autonomy, and the sum of endorsed items indicates the degree to which autonomy has been lost. This study extends the HONC to adult smokers.(More)
Individuals have lost full autonomy over their smoking when quitting becomes unpleasant or difficult. We examined autonomy in relation to smoking frequency and lifetime cigarette use. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by three convenience samples of Year 10 students (ages 14-15) in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004 (n=96,156). The Hooked On(More)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence (DSM-ND) are based on the proposition that dependence is a syndrome that can be diagnosed only when a minimum of 3 of the 7 proscribed features are present. The DSM-ND criteria are an accepted research measure, but the validity of these criteria has not been subjected to a(More)