Joseph R. Broucek

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BACKGROUND Melanoma is one of the few types of cancer with an increasing annual incidence. While a number of immunotherapies for melanoma have been associated with significant clinical benefit, including high-dose IL-2 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade, clinical response to either of these single agents has been limited to 11-20% of(More)
In light of increased cancer prevalence and cancer-specific deaths in patients with infections, we investigated whether infections alter anti-tumor immune responses. We report that acute influenza infection of the lung promotes distal melanoma growth in the dermis and leads to accelerated cancer-specific host death. Furthermore, we show that during(More)
Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is associated with objective responses in 15–20 % of patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. More recently, rIL-2 has also demonstrated improved clinical activity in patients with melanoma. Given the toxicity of high-dose rIL-2 and the availability of many new immunotherapy agents, it has been suggested(More)
Background The results of multiple IL-2 clinical trials (using a range of doses) have shown similar trends, in which IL-2 immunotherapy leads to an objective response in 15-20% of patients and complete response in 5-10%. Importantly, the majority (> 80%) of patients with a complete response maintain long-term responses. However, why only a small proportion(More)
High-dose IL-2 (HDIL2) is approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but its use is limited in part by toxicity related to the development of vascular leak syndrome (VLS). Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of HDIL2-induced increases in endothelial cell (EC)(More)
BACKGROUND Hiatal hernia (HH) is closely associated with morbid obesity. There is controversy over the need for preoperative imaging before laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of preoperatively diagnosing HH with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series imaging. METHODS A retrospective(More)
Background Monotherapy with Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody) and monotherapy with IL-2 (T cell stimulating cytokine) are approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Combination immunotherapy has been suggested as a more potent regimen but has not been sufficiently investigated. We hypothesized that this combination may enhance therapeutic responses(More)
High-dose interleukin-2 (HDIL2) treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma is associated with durable responses, but therapy is accompanied by significant toxicity related to vascular leak syndrome (VLS). Currently, the cause of VLS is not well defined; however, based on the role of endothelial cell (EC) permeability in VLS and(More)
Background Emerging epidemiologic studies describe an increased prevalence of tumors in patients with non-oncogenic chronic viral disease (e.g., non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV and non-hepatic cancers in HCV). However, there is a lack of basic understanding by what mechanism infections result in increased unrelated cancer formation (i.e., of cancers in(More)