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This paper describes results of an experiment with 9 different DARPA Communicator Systems who participated in the June 2000 data collection. All systems supported travel planning and utilized some form of mixed-initiative interaction. However they varied in several critical dimensions: (1) They targeted different back-end databases for travel information;(More)
In this paper we present an approach to recognition confidence scoring and a set of techniques for integrating confidence scores into the understanding and dialogue components of a speech understanding system. The recognition component uses a multi-tiered approach where confidence scores are computed at the phonetic, word, and utterance levels. The scores(More)
In this paper we report our efforts in data collection and performance evaluation in support of spoken dialogue system development. We describe two understanding metrics called query density and concept efficiency which can be interpreted on a per-utterance basis, but which are measured over the course of a dialogue. We also describe the evaluation(More)
Through efforts over the past fifteen years, we have acquired a great deal of experience in designing spoken dialogue systems that provide access to large corpora of data in a variety of different knowledge domains, such as flights, hotels, restaurants, weather, etc. In our recent research, we have begun to shift our focus towards developing tools that(More)
Despite its long history, and a great deal of research producing many useful algorithms and observations, research in cooperative response generation has had little impact on the recent commercialization of dialogue technologies, particularly within the spoken dialogue community. We hypothesize that a particular type of cooperative response, intensional(More)
A popular approach to dialogue management is based on a finite-state model, where user utterances trigger transitions between the dialogue states, and these states, in turn, determine the system's response. This paper describes an alternative dialogue planning algorithm based on the notion of filling in an electronic form, or " E-form. " Each slot has(More)
Galaxy-ii is the designated initial common architecture for the DARPA Communicator project in the U.S. Its key feature is the ability to control system integration via a run-time executable scripting language. This paper describes our experience in developing complex systems based on the galaxy-ii framework. Our current system consists of four domains and(More)
The GALAXY-II architecture, comprised of a centralized hub mediating the interaction among a suite of human language technology servers, provides both a useful tool for implementing systems and also a streamlined way of configuring the evaluation of these systems. In this paper, we discuss our ongoing efforts in evaluation of spoken dialogue systems, with(More)
Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Abstract—In early 1997, our group(More)