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Chalcone synthase (CHS) is pivotal for the biosynthesis of flavonoid antimicrobial phytoalexins and anthocyanin pigments in plants. It produces chalcone by condensing one p-coumaroyl- and three malonyl-coenzyme A thioesters into a polyketide reaction intermediate that cyclizes. The crystal structures of CHS alone and complexed with substrate and product(More)
This review covers the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily of plant and bacterial biosynthetic enzymes. from the discovery of chalcone synthase (CHS) in the 1970s through the end of 2001. A broader perspective is achieved by a comparison of these CHS-like enzymes to mechanistically and evolutionarily related families of(More)
Plants grown at high densities perceive a decrease in the red to far-red (R:FR) ratio of incoming light, resulting from absorption of red light by canopy leaves and reflection of far-red light from neighboring plants. These changes in light quality trigger a series of responses known collectively as the shade avoidance syndrome. During shade avoidance,(More)
Chalcone isomerase (CHI) catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of chalcone synthesized by chalcone synthase (CHS) into (2S)-naringenin, an essential compound in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments, inducers of Rhizobium nodulation genes, and antimicrobial phytoalexins. The 1.85 A resolution crystal structure of alfalfa CHI in complex with(More)
Terpene cyclases catalyze the synthesis of cyclic terpenes with 10-, 15-, and 20-carbon acyclic isoprenoid diphosphates as substrates. Plants have been a source of these natural products by providing a homologous set of terpene synthases. The crystal structures of 5-epi-aristolochene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from tobacco, alone and complexed(More)
Some basil varieties are able to convert the phenylpropenes chavicol and eugenol to methylchavicol and methyleugenol, respectively. Chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) cDNAs were isolated from the sweet basil variety EMX-1 using a biochemical genomics approach. These cDNAs encode proteins that are 90% identical to(More)
The human rotamase or peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 is a conserved mitotic regulator essential for the G2/M transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle. We report the 1.35 A crystal structure of Pin1 complexed with an AlaPro dipeptide and the initial characterization of Pin1's functional properties. The crystallographic structure as well as pH(More)
Polyhydroxylated steroids are regulators of body shape and size in higher organisms. In metazoans, intracellular receptors recognize these molecules. Plants, however, perceive steroids at membranes, using the membrane-integral receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Here we report the structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana BRI1 ligand-binding(More)
BACKGROUND Polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate molecular diversity by utilizing different starter molecules and by controlling the final length of the polyketide. Although exploitation of this mechanistic variability has produced novel polyketides, the structural foundation of this versatility is unclear. Plant-specific PKSs are essential for the(More)
Caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid 3/5-O-methyltransferase (COMT) from alfalfa is an S-adenosyl-L-Met-dependent O-methyltransferase involved in lignin biosynthesis. COMT methylates caffeoyl- and 5-hydroxyferuloyl-containing acids, aldehydes, and alcohols in vitro while displaying a kinetic preference for the alcohols and aldehydes over the free acids. The(More)