Joseph P Y Kao

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A new group of fluorescent indicators with visible excitation and emission wavelengths has been synthesized for measurements of cytosolic free Ca2+. The five compounds, "rhod-1," "rhod-2," "fluo-1," "fluo-2," and "fluo-3" (Figs. 2 and 3), combine the 8-coordinate tetracarboxylate chelating site of 1,2-bis(2-amino-phenoxyethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid(More)
The dendritic arbor of pyramidal neurons is not a monolithic structure. We show here that the excitability of terminal apical dendrites differs from that of the apical trunk. In response to fluorescence-guided focal photolysis of caged glutamate, individual terminal apical dendrites generated cadmium-sensitive all-or-none responses that were subthreshold(More)
Focal activation of glutamate receptors in distal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells triggers voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel-mediated plateau potentials that are confined to the stimulated dendrite. We examined the role of dendritic K(+) conductances in determining the amplitude, duration, and spatial compartmentalization of plateau potentials.(More)
In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide(More)
Fluo-3, one member of a family of new fluorescent Ca2+ indicators excitable at wavelengths in the visible (Minta, A., Kao, J. P. Y., and Tsien, R. Y. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 8171-8178), has been tested in living cells. We demonstrate that fluo-3 can be loaded into fibroblasts and lymphocytes by incubation with the pentaacetoxymethyl ester of the dye and(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the cerebellum was explored using a new, organic, membrane-impermeant form of caged NO. NO photolytically released inside Purkinje neurons mimicked parallel fiber (PF) activity in synergizing with brief postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTD. Such LTD required a delay of < 50(More)
Long-term increases in the strength of excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell synapses of the hippocampus require the insertion of new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) into the synapse, but the kinetics of this process are not well established. Using microphotolysis of caged glutamate to activate(More)
New fluorescent Na+ indicators, SBFI (short for sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate) and SBFP (short for sodium-binding benzofuran phthalate) (Minta, A., and Tsien, R. Y. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 19449-19457), were tested in Jurkat tumor lymphocytes and in REF52 rat embryo fibroblasts. Both dyes could be introduced by direct microinjection. However,(More)
Activation of distinct classes of potassium channels can dramatically affect the frequency and the pattern of neuronal firing. In a subpopulation of vagal afferent neurons (nodose ganglion neurons), the pattern of impulse activity is effectively modulated by a Ca2+-dependent K+ current. This current produces a post-spike hyperpolarization (AHPslow) that(More)
The functional connectivity of the cerebral cortex is shaped by experience during development, especially during a critical period early in life. In the prenatal and neonatal cortex, transient neuronal circuits are formed by a population of subplate neurons (SPNs). However, SPNs are absent in the adult cortex. While SPNs are crucial for normal development(More)