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The dendritic arbor of pyramidal neurons is not a monolithic structure. We show here that the excitability of terminal apical dendrites differs from that of the apical trunk. In response to fluorescence-guided focal photolysis of caged glutamate, individual terminal apical dendrites generated cadmium-sensitive all-or-none responses that were subthreshold(More)
Focal activation of glutamate receptors in distal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells triggers voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel-mediated plateau potentials that are confined to the stimulated dendrite. We examined the role of dendritic K(+) conductances in determining the amplitude, duration, and spatial compartmentalization of plateau potentials.(More)
The functional connectivity of the cerebral cortex is shaped by experience during development, especially during a critical period early in life. In the prenatal and neonatal cortex, transient neuronal circuits are formed by a population of subplate neurons (SPNs). However, SPNs are absent in the adult cortex. While SPNs are crucial for normal development(More)
In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the cerebellum was explored using a new, organic, membrane-impermeant form of caged NO. NO photolytically released inside Purkinje neurons mimicked parallel fiber (PF) activity in synergizing with brief postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTD. Such LTD required a delay of < 50(More)
Neurons in the primary visual cortex are selective for the direction of movement of a visual stimulus. Like other stimulus features, direction preference is mapped on the cortical surface in a systematic manner. Intracortical synaptic circuits, in particular inhibitory connections, have been implicated in the emergence of direction selectivity. Whether(More)
Long-term increases in the strength of excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell synapses of the hippocampus require the insertion of new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) into the synapse, but the kinetics of this process are not well established. Using microphotolysis of caged glutamate to activate(More)
A wide variety of nonexcitable cells generate repetitive transient increases in cytosolic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) when stimulated with agonists that engage the phosphoinositide signalling pathway. Current theories regarding the mechanisms of oscillation disagree on whether Ca2+ inhibits or stimulates its own release from internal stores and(More)
Activation of distinct classes of potassium channels can dramatically affect the frequency and the pattern of neuronal firing. In a subpopulation of vagal afferent neurons (nodose ganglion neurons), the pattern of impulse activity is effectively modulated by a Ca2+-dependent K+ current. This current produces a post-spike hyperpolarization (AHPslow) that(More)
Global Ca2+ transients have been observed to precede nuclear envelope breakdown and the onset of anaphase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in 8% (vol/vol) FBS. The occurrence of these Ca2+ transients was dependent on intracellular stores. These Ca2+ transients could be (a) abolished by serum removal without halting mitosis, and (b) eliminated by increasing(More)