Joseph P. Shott

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Falciparum malaria vaccine candidates have been developed using recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 and 35 adenoviruses (Ad5, Ad35) encoding the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) (Ad5.CS, Ad35.CS) (Crucell Holland BV, Leiden, The Netherlands). To evaluate the immunogenicity of these constructs, BALB/cJ mice were(More)
The performance characteristics of HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) vary by test and by population. We assessed five commercial RDTs in Uganda where all but one RDT (Determine; Abbott Laboratories, Germany) performed close to manufacturer's expectations. Determine had low specificity (85.2%, positive predictive value 67.3%) due to false-positive results(More)
Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease(More)
We compared results of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (Binax Now Malaria, Binax-M, Inverness Medical Innovations, Inc., Waltham, MA) performed at rural mobile clinics in Uganda by clinicians evaluating febrile adult HIV patients to thick smear evaluated at a central laboratory by trained microscopists. Two hundred forty-six samples were analyzed, including(More)
The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL(More)
The RTS,S/AS02A protein-based vaccine consistently demonstrates significant protection against infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and also against clinical malaria and severe disease in children in areas of endemicity. Here we demonstrate with rhesus macaques that priming with a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) vector(More)
Technology advances in rapid diagnosis and clinical monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been made in recent years, greatly benefiting those at risk of HIV infection, those needing care and treatment, and those on antiretroviral (ART) therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. However, resource-limited, geographically remote, and harsh(More)
In this study, we report the performance of a prototype malaria rapid diagnostic test, Malaria F-test (MFT), compared with thick blood films from HIV-positive Ugandans undergoing malaria testing. In total, 21/154 samples (13.6%) were concordantly positive by both thick film and MFT and 129/154 samples (83.8%) were concordantly negative; 1 sample (0.6%) was(More)
CD4 stabilization tubes have the ability to ensure internal quality control in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monitoring laboratory by maintaining accurate absolute CD4 T-cell counts for up to 6 days. Here, we assessed this technology for its use in an HIV clinical monitoring laboratory in a resource-poor setting in rural Uganda.
Laboratory capacity in the developing world frequently lacks quality management systems (QMS) such as good clinical laboratory practices, proper safety precautions, and adequate facilities; impacting the ability to conduct biomedical research where it is needed most. As the regulatory climate changes globally, higher quality laboratory support is needed to(More)
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