Learn More
For the complex systems modeller, uncertainty is ever-present. While uncertainty cannot be eliminated, we suggest that formally incorporating an assessment of uncertainty into our models can provide great benefits. Sources of uncertainty arise from the model itself, theoretical flaws, design flaws, and logical errors. Management of uncertainty and error in(More)
BACKGROUND Inequalities in geographic access to health care result from the configuration of facilities, population distribution, and the transportation infrastructure. In recent accessibility studies, the traditional distance measure (Euclidean) has been replaced with more plausible measures such as travel distance or time. Both network and raster-based(More)
This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents(More)
We introduce and evaluate three methods for modeling the spatial distribution of multiple land-cover classes at sub-pixel scales: (a) sequential categorical swapping, (b) simultaneous categorical swapping, and (c) simulated annealing. Method 1, a modification of a binary pixel-swapping algorithm, allocates each class in turn to maximize internal spatial(More)
BACKGROUND Roemer's Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Community hospital placement is dictated by a diverse set of geographical factors and historical contingency. In the summer of 2004, a multi-organizational committee headed by the State of Michigan's Department of Community Health approached the authors of this paper with questions about how spatial analyses might be employed to develop a revised(More)
Real time and spatially distributed T a (air temperature) data are desired for many applications. T s (land surface temperature) derived from remote sensors has been used to estimate T a in previous studies. Exploring MODIS Aqua T s and station measured daily maximum and minimum T a over east Africa, we found that T s did not agree well with T a during the(More)
West Nile Virus is a vector-borne flavivirus that affects mainly birds, horses, and humans. The disease emerged in the United States in 1999 and by 2001 had reached Michigan. In clinical human cases, the most common symptoms are fever, weakness, nausea, headache, and changes in mental state. The crow is the most common wildlife host in the life cycle of the(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma spp, biologically transmitted by the tsetse fly in Africa, are a major cause of illness resulting in both high morbidity and mortality among humans, cattle, wild ungulates, and other species. However, tsetse fly distributions change rapidly due to environmental changes, and fine-scale distribution maps are few. Due to data scarcity,(More)