Joseph P. Bielawski

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Bayes prediction quantifies uncertainty by assigning posterior probabilities. It was used to identify amino acids in a protein under recurrent diversifying selection indicated by higher nonsynonymous (d(N)) than synonymous (d(S)) substitution rates or by omega = d(N)/d(S) > 1. Parameters were estimated by maximum likelihood under a codon substitution model(More)
The tailoring of existing genetic systems to new uses is called genetic co-option. Mechanisms of genetic co-option have been difficult to study because of difficulties in identifying functionally important changes. One way to study genetic co-option in protein-coding genes is to identify those amino acid sites that have experienced changes in selective(More)
The rapid accumulation of genomic sequences in public databases will finally allow large scale studies of gene family evolution, including evaluation of the role of positive Darwinian selection following a duplication event. This will be possible because recent statistical methods of comparing synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates permit reliable(More)
Cyanophages (cyanobacterial viruses) are important agents of horizontal gene transfer among marine cyanobacteria, the numerically dominant photosynthetic organisms in the oceans. Some cyanophage genomes carry and express host-like photosynthesis genes, presumably to augment the host photosynthetic machinery during infection. To study the prevalence and(More)
We investigated variable selective pressures among amino acid sites in HIV-1 genes. Selective pressure at the amino acid level was measured by using the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratio (omega = dN/dS). To identify amino acid sites under positive selection with omega > 1, we applied maximum likelihood models that allow variable omega ratios(More)
  • Matthew B Sullivan, Maureen L Coleman, Vanessa Quinlivan, Jessica E Rosenkrantz, Alicia S DeFrancesco, G Tan +5 others
  • 2008
Oceanic phages are critical components of the global ecosystem, where they play a role in microbial mortality and evolution. Our understanding of phage diversity is greatly limited by the lack of useful genetic diversity measures. Previous studies, focusing on myophages that infect the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus, have used the coliphage T4(More)
Different models of gene family evolution have been proposed to explain the mechanism whereby gene copies created by gene duplications are maintained and diverge in function. Ohta proposed a model which predicts a burst of nonsynonymous substitutions following gene duplication and the preservation of duplicates through positive selection. An alternative(More)
The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven(More)
BACKGROUND Models of codon evolution have proven useful for investigating the strength and direction of natural selection. In some cases, a priori biological knowledge has been used successfully to model heterogeneous evolutionary dynamics among codon sites. These are called fixed-effect models, and they require that all codon sites are assigned to one of(More)
Models of codon evolution are useful for investigating the strength and direction of natural selection via a parameter for the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/d(S)). Different codon models are available to account for diversity of the evolutionary patterns among sites. Codon models that specify data partitions as fixed effects allow the(More)