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We have developed a genetic approach to examine the role of spontaneous activity and synaptic release in the establishment and maintenance of an olfactory sensory map. Conditional expression of tetanus toxin light chain, a molecule that inhibits synaptic release, does not perturb targeting during development, but neurons that express this molecule in a(More)
In the olfactory sensory system, neurons expressing a given odorant receptor project with precision to two of 1800 spatially invariant glomeruli creating a topographic map within the olfactory bulb. Olfactory sensory neurons have a half-life of about 90 days and are continually renewing. This poses the problem of how this precise spatial map is maintained(More)
Cloning by nuclear transplantation has been successfully carried out in various mammals, including mice. Until now mice have not been cloned from post-mitotic cells such as neurons. Here, we have generated fertile mouse clones derived by transferring the nuclei of post-mitotic, olfactory sensory neurons into oocytes. These results indicate that the genome(More)
To identify the possible cellular sites of opioid gene expression during ontogeny, proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin peptide expression were examined, respectively, by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry in organotypic explants of rat cerebellum and in astrocyte-enriched cultures of murine cerebral hemispheres. High levels of proenkephalin mRNA(More)
The cellular localization of proenkephalin (PE) mRNA expression was systematically examined in midsagittal (vermal) sections of the developing rat cerebellar cortex by in situ hybridization. PE mRNA was initially detected in Golgi cells of postnatal day 7 (PND 7) rats and in each group thereafter. Moreover, PND 7 rats also displayed an intense layer of PE(More)
1. Preliminary studies in our laboratories showed that the synthetic xanthine analogue denbufylline, a selective type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor, is a potent activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis when given orally to adult male rats. This paper describes the results of experiments in which well established in vivo and in vitro(More)
Proenkephalin mRNA and peptide products were examined in developing cells of the postnatal rat cerebellar cortex using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. On day 7, proenkephalin mRNA was first detected as discrete cellular labeling in Golgi cells and as a diffuse hybridization signal over the Purkinje cell layer. On day 14, proenkephalin mRNA(More)
To determine whether cultured astrocytes express opioid gene mRNA, a method was developed for co-localizing a cell-type specific immunocytochemical marker for astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and proenkephalin mRNA in situ hybridization signal using high affinity cRNA probes. GFAP immunoreactivity and proenkephalin mRNA hybridization(More)
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