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Despite numerous studies, uncertainty remains about how water quality indicators can best be used in the regulation of recreational water. We conducted a systematic review of this topic with the goal of quantifying the association between microbial indicators of recreational water quality and gastrointestinal (GI) illness. A secondary goal was to evaluate(More)
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children throughout the world, but rotavirus cases in developing countries account for nearly all of the approximately 600,000 annual deaths. We studied the epidemiology of rotavirus in 22 rural communities in northern coastal Ecuador over a five-year period. From 250(More)
BACKGROUND The increasing incidence of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli, and observations of potential outbreaks of UTI-causing E. coli, suggest that food may be an important source of E. coli in women who develop UTI. We sought to determine if acquisition of and infection with a(More)
In developing countries where diarrheal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age, enteric coinfection is common. There is little understanding, however, of the biologic interaction between coinfecting pathogens. The authors investigated the potential for synergistic interaction between coinfecting pathogens on(More)
Although immunocompromised persons may be at increased risk for gastrointestinal illnesses, no trials investigating drinking water treatment and gastrointestinal illness in such patients have been published. Earlier results from San Francisco suggested an association (OR 6.76) between tap water and cryptosporidiosis among HIV + persons. The authors(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary transmission after point-source outbreaks is an integral feature of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal pathogens such as norovirus. The household is an important site of these secondary cases. It can become the source of further community transmission as well as new point-source outbreaks. Consequently, time-series data from exposed(More)
The impact of heavy rainfall events on waterborne diarrheal diseases is uncertain. We conducted weekly, active surveillance for diarrhea in 19 villages in Ecuador from February 2004 to April 2007 in order to evaluate whether biophysical and social factors modify vulnerability to heavy rainfall events. A heavy rainfall event was defined as 24-hour rainfall(More)
Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been conducted since the 1950s, few studies have been done in the tropics. Furthermore, many have suggested that the use of fecal(More)
BACKGROUND To date little conclusive evidence exists on the seasonality of rotavirus incidence in the tropics. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seasonal epidemiology of rotavirus in the tropics, including 26 studies reporting continuous monthly rotavirus incidence for which corresponding climatological data was available. METHODS(More)
Developing effective policy for environmental health issues requires integrating large collections of information that are diverse, highly variable, and uncertain. Despite these uncertainties in the science, decisions must be made. These decisions often have been based on risk assessment. We argue that two important features of risk assessment are to(More)