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The regulatory anthocyanin loci, an1, an2, an4 and an11 of Petunia hybrida, and r and c1 from Zea mays, control transcription of different sets of target genes. Both an2 and c1 encode a MYB-type protein. This study reports the isolation of a P. hybrida gene, jaf13, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein that, on the basis of sequence homology and(More)
The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last(More)
Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated(More)
The shape and color of flowers are important for plant reproduction because they attract pollinators such as insects and birds. Therefore, it is thought that alterations in these traits may result in the attraction of different pollinators, genetic isolation, and ultimately, (sympatric) speciation. Petunia integrifolia and P. axillaris bear flowers with(More)
We isolated and characterized two flower-specific genes from petunia. The protein products of these genes, designated floral binding protein 1 (FBP1) and 2 (FBP2), are putative transcription factors with the MADS box DNA binding domain. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the fbp1 gene is exclusively expressed in petals and stamen of petunia flowers. In(More)
In petunia flowers, the loci an1, an2, and an11 control the pigmentation of the flower by stimulating the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The an1 and an2 locus were recently cloned and encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB-domain transcriptional activator, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of the an11 locus by transposon(More)
To evaluate the effect of increased expression of genes involved in flower pigmentation, additional dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) or chalcone synthase (CHS) genes were transferred to petunia. In most transformants, the increased expression had no measurable effect on floral pigmentation. Surprisingly, however, in up to 25% of the transformants, a(More)
Posttranscriptional silencing of chalcone synthase (Chs) genes in petunia transformants occurs by introducing T-DNAs that contain a promoter-driven or promoterless Chs transgene. With the constructs we used, silencing occurs only by T-DNA loci which are composed of two or more T-DNA copies that are arranged as inverted repeats (IRs). Since we are interested(More)
Two distinct gene-silencing phenomena are observed in plants: transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which involves decreased RNA synthesis because of promoter methylation, and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which involves sequence-specific RNA degradation. PTGS is induced by deliberate [1-4] or fortuitous production (R.v.B., unpublished data) of(More)