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3221 In a recent study, Nunn (2008) examines the long-term impacts of Africa's slave trade. He finds that the slave trade, which occurred over a period of more than 400 years, had a significant negative effect on long-term economic development. Although the article arguably identifies a negative causal relationship between the slave trade and income today,(More)
We present a compilation of endocranial volumes (ECV) for 176 non-human primate species based on individual data collected from 3813 museum specimens, at least 88% being wild-caught. In combination with body mass data from wild individuals, strong correlations between endocranial volume and body mass within taxonomic groups were found. Errors attributable(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the relatively selective M(1) antagonist pirenzepine hydrochloride in slowing the progression of myopia in school-aged children. METHODS This was a parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked study in healthy children, aged 8 to 12 years, with a spherical equivalent of -0.75 to -4.00 diopters (D) and(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate if the safety and efficacy of the relatively selective M1-antagonist, pirenzepine, in slowing the progression of myopia in children is sustained over a 2-year period. METHODS This was a multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Enrolled were children aged 8 to 12 years, with entry(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A total of 252 Native American (Tohono O'odham) children aged 5 to 12 years. On the basis of cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia < or =0.25(More)
OBJECT Pituitary apoplexy is a rare and potentially life-threatening disorder that is most commonly characterized by a combination of sudden headache, visual disturbance, and hypothalamic/hormonal dysfunction. In many cases, there is hemorrhagic infarction of an underlying pituitary adenoma. The resulting clinical symptoms are due to compression of the(More)
A 1.8 mT, bone healing, electromagnetic field (EMF) and power frequency EMFs of 0.1 and 0.4 mT significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in otherwise unstimulated Jurkat (E 6.1) cells. Inhibition is generally most prominent in cells from mid log phase growth. In complete medium the bone healing EMF inhibits [3H] thymidine uptake of the latter cells by almost 50%(More)
PURPOSE To determine prescribing practices of pediatric ophthalmologists for astigmatism and astigmatic anisometropia in infants and young children. METHODS A survey was sent to the 700 North American AAPOS members listed in the 2004 web site directory. RESULTS A total of 412/700 surveys (59%) were returned. The level of astigmatism at which pediatric(More)
Best-corrected acuity was measured for vertical and horizontal gratings and for recognition acuity optotypes (Lea Symbols) in a group of three- to five-year-old children with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Results showed meridional amblyopia (MA) among children with simple/compound myopic or mixed astigmatism, due to reduced acuity for horizontal(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. METHODS Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending(More)