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Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate physiological processes by degrading intracellular second messengers, adenosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate or guanosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate. The first crystal structure of PDE4D catalytic domain and a bound inhibitor, zardaverine, was determined. Zardaverine binds to a highly conserved pocket that includes(More)
Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are increased in states of cancer, inflammation and infection. In malignant states, MDSC are induced by tumor secreted growth factors. MDSC play an important part in suppression of host immune responses through several mechanisms such as production of(More)
S100A1 is an EF-hand-containing Ca(2+)-binding protein that undergoes a conformational change upon binding calcium as is necessary to interact with protein targets and initiate a biological response. To better understand how calcium influences the structure and function of S100A1, the three-dimensional structure of calcium-bound S100A1 was determined by(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature myeloid cells defined by their suppressive actions on immune cells such as T cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. MDSCs typically are positive for the markers CD33 and CD11b but express low levels of HLADR in humans. In mice, MDSCs are typically positive for both CD11b and(More)
S100B is a dimeric Ca(2+)-binding protein that undergoes a 90 +/- 3 degrees rotation of helix 3 in the typical EF-hand domain (EF2) upon the addition of calcium. The large reorientation of this helix is a prerequisite for the interaction between each subunit of S100B and target proteins such as the tumor suppressor protein, p53. In this study, Tb(3+) was(More)
S100 calcium-binding proteins such as S100B are elevated in primary malignant melanoma and are used as markers for this and numerous other cancers. Wild-type p53 protein levels are relatively low in these cancer cells (i.e. when compared with cells without S100B) but are elevated when RNA antisense to S100B is introduced. This result implicates S100B in the(More)
The binding of S100B to p53 down-regulates wild-type p53 tumor suppressor activity in cancer cells such as malignant melanoma, so a search for small molecules that bind S100B and prevent S100B-p53 complex formation was undertaken. Chemical databases were computationally searched for potential inhibitors of S100B, and 60 compounds were selected for testing(More)
S100B interacts with the p53 protein in a calcium-dependent manner and down-regulates its function as a tumor suppressor. Therefore, inhibiting the S100B-p53 interaction represents a new approach for restoring functional wild-type p53 in cancers with elevated S100B such as found in malignant melanoma. A discussion of the biological rational for targeting(More)
S100A9 is a calcium binding protein with multiple ligands and post-translation modifications that is involved in inflammatory events and the initial development of the cancer cell through to the development of metastatic disease. This review has a threefold purpose: 1) describe the S100A9 structural elements important for its biological activity, 2)(More)
Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that was originally developed as a Raf kinase inhibitor. We hypothesized that sorafenib would also have inhibitory effects on cytokine signaling pathways in immune cells. PBMCs from normal donors were treated with varying concentrations of sorafenib and stimulated with IFN-α or IL-2. Phosphorylation of STAT1 and(More)