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BACKGROUND Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting) for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are important vectors of malaria and bancroftian filariasis, which occur as co-endemic infections along the Kenyan Coast. However, little is known about the occurrence and prevalence of concomitant infections of the two diseases in mosquito and human populations in these areas. This study reports the(More)
Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have investigated the ecology and behaviour of malaria vectors and Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Substantial progress has been made to control vector populations and reduce high malaria prevalence and severe disease. The goal of this paper was to examine trends over the past 20(More)
Mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments were conducted with emerging Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anophelesfunestus Giles at Jaribuni and Mtepeni in Kilifi, along the Kenyan Coast. Of 739 and 1246 Anopheles released at Jaribuni and Mtepeni, 24.6 and 4.33% were recaptured, respectively. The daily survival probability was 0.96 for An. funestus and 0.95 for An.(More)
Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21(More)
Studies of the fine-scale spatial epidemiology of malaria consistently identify malaria hotspots, comprising clusters of homesteads at high transmission intensity. These hotspots sustain transmission, and may be targeted by malaria-control programmes. Here we describe the spatial relationship between the location of Anopheles larval sites and human malaria(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES A study was conducted to characterise larval habitats and to determine spatial heterogeneity of the Anopheles mosquito larvae. The study was conducted from May to June 1999 in nine villages along the Kenyan coast. METHODS Aquatic habitats were sampled by use of standard dipping technique. The habitats were characterised based on(More)
The seasonal dynamics and spatial distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum parasites were studied for one year at 30 villages in Malindi, Kilifi, and Kwale Districts along the coast of Kenya. Anopheline mosquitoes were sampled inside houses at each site once every two months and malaria parasite prevalence in local school children was(More)
Larval control is a major component in mosquito control programs. This study evaluated the wide-scale application of Bti/Bs biolarvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [Bti] and Bacillus sphaericus [Bs]) in different aquatic habitats in urban and peri-urban Malindi, Kenya. This study was done from June 2006 to December 2007. The urban and(More)
BACKGROUND Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of Anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya. METHODS Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. RESULTS(More)