Joseph M Gruber

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The syntheses of sulfur and selenium isosteric substitution analogues of retinol, namely, retinyl phenyl thioether (2b), retinyl phenyl selenoether (2c), and retinyl thioacetate (2e) are described. These retinoid derivatives were examined for activity in terms of "chemoprevention" of cancer by measuring the reverse keratinization of epithelial cells in(More)
The above data indicate that LY335979 displays the following characteristics of an 'ideal modulator' of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance: high affinity binding to Pgp, high potency for in vitro reversal of drug resistance, high therapeutic index (activity was demonstrated at doses ranging from 1-30 mg/kg) observed in in vivo antitumor efficacy experiments,(More)
The metabolism and disposition of LY231514 was studied in mice and dogs. LY231514 is a novel pyrrotopyrimidine-based multi-target antifolate (MTA) showing broad in vivo antitumor activity in mouse models and is currently in phase II human clinical trials. Doses (iv) of the compound showed high plasma levels, resulting in AUC values of 30-33 micrograms-hr/ml(More)
Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the tricyclic isoxazole series of MRP1 modulators have resulted in the identification of potent and selective inhibitors containing cyclohexyl-based linkers. These studies ultimately identified compound 21b, which reverses drug resistance to MRP1 substrates, such as doxorubicin, in HeLa-T5 cells(More)
Structure modification of the beta-alanine region (fragment C) of the potent antimitotic agent cryptophycin was investigated. This includes: (1) introduction of substituents at the previously unsubstituted C7 position of the macrolide ring and (2) replacement of the (2R)-3-amino-2-methyl-propanoic acid (beta-alanine) with various (1)-amino acids to give the(More)
Tricyclic isoxazoles were identified from a screen as a novel class of selective multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) inhibitors. From a screen lead, SAR efforts resulted in the preparation of LY 402913 (9h), which inhibits MRP1 and reverses drug resistance to MRP1 substrates, such as doxorubicin, in HeLa-T5 cells (EC(50)=0.90 microM), while showing no(More)
Nedocromil sodium is a pyranoquinoline dicarboxylic acid derivative, formulated in a metered-dose inhaler. Because nedocromil sodium has in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, it was evaluated in a group of steroid-dependent patients with asthma to observe how well it might be tolerated and for evidence of any beneficial effects. In a(More)
We examined the efficacy of nedocromil sodium as an oral steroid sparing agent in a group of 37 severe, oral steroid-dependent asthmatics. All were receiving daily or alternate-day prednisone. These patients had taken part in an earlier, 12-week double-blind trial of nedocromil sodium 16 mg daily by inhalation or matching placebo. They continued with test(More)
The disclosed 3-phenyl-5-isothiazole carboxamides are potent allosteric antagonists of mGluR1 with generally good selectivity relative to the related group 1 receptor mGluR5. Pharmacokinetic properties of a member of this series (1R,2R)-N-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylisothiazol-5-yl)-2-methylcyclopropanecarboxamide (14) are good, showing acceptable plasma(More)