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Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a method commonly used in human studies of motor cortex synaptic plasticity. It involves repeated pairs of electrical stimuli to the median nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. If the interval between peripheral and TMS stimulation is around 21–25 ms, corticospinal excitability is(More)
In explicit sequence learning tasks, an improvement in performance (skill) typically occurs after sleep-leading to the recent literature on sleep-dependent motor consolidation. Consolidation can also be facilitated during wakefulness if declarative knowledge for the sequence is reduced through a secondary cognitive task. Accordingly, declarative and(More)
Animal studies using polarising currents have shown that induction of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) by bursts of patterned stimulation is affected by the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neurone. The aim of the present experiments was to test whether it is possible to observe similar phenomena in humans with the(More)
The pFC has a crucial role in cognitive control, executive function, and sensory processing. Functional imaging, neurophysiological, and animal studies provide evidence for a functional connectivity between the dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) and the primary motor cortex (M1) during free choice but not instructed choice selection tasks. In this study, twin coil,(More)
OBJECTIVES Impairments in memory and executive function are key components of schizophrenia. These disturbances have been linked to several subcortical and cortical networks. For example, anatomical and functional changes in the hippocampus have been linked to deficits in these cognitive domains. However, the association between hippocampal morphometry,(More)
Action observation (AO), observing another individual perform an action, has been implicated in several higher cognitive processes including forming basic motor memories. Previous work has shown that physical practice (PP) results in cortical motor representational changes, referred to as use-dependent plasticity (UDP), and that AO combined with PP(More)
Humans carry out many daily tasks in a seemingly automatic fashion. However, when unexpected changes in the environment occur, we have the capacity to inhibit prepotent behavior and replace it with an alternative one. Such behavioral flexibility is a hallmark of executive functions. The neurotransmitter dopamine is known to be crucial for fast, efficient,(More)
The temporal preparation of motor responses to external events (temporal preparation) relies on internal representations of the accumulated elapsed time (temporal representations) before an event occurs and on estimates about its most likely time of occurrence (temporal expectations). The precision (inverse of uncertainty) of temporal preparation, however,(More)
Two clinical cases of aspiration are reported in elderly ladies with differing presentations following inhalation of the same brand of calcium tablet. One of the patients distinctly recalled the choking episode, whereas the other failed to do so making the diagnosis of aspiration difficult. One of the aspirated tablets was successfully retrieved during(More)
UNLABELLED Open heart surgery is a procedure which warrants patient education about the complexity of drug regimens and lifestyle modifications. Patient nonadherence is likely to have a considerable negative impact on the patients' quality of life post-cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pharmacist intervention on patients' adherence to(More)
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