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This study investigates how parental employment affects child cognitive development. The results indicate that maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life has a small negative effect on the predicted verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a larger detrimental impact on the reading and mathematics achievement of 5 and 6 year olds(More)
Obesity is the driving force behind the worldwide increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia is a hallmark of diabetes and is largely due to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. The medial hypothalamus is a major integrator of nutritional and hormonal signals, which play pivotal roles not only in the regulation of energy balance(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) are heteromultimers of sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits (K(IR)6.x) with a (SUR-K(IR)6.x)4 stoichiometry. Association is specific for K(IR)6.x and affects receptor glycosylation and cophotolabeling of K(IR)6.x by 125I-azidoglibenclamide. Association produces(More)
The modulation of motor behavior by protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways in nigrostriatal neurons was examined by using a genetic intervention approach. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors that encode a catalytic domain of rat PKCbetaII (PkcDelta) were developed. PkcDelta exhibited a constitutively active protein kinase activity with a(More)
Ntp and Ctp, synthetic peptides based on the N- and C-terminal sequences of K(IR)6.0, respectively, were used to probe gating of K(IR)6.0/SUR K(ATP) channels. Micromolar Ntp dose-dependently increased the mean open channel probability in ligand-free solution (P(O(max))) and attenuated the ATP inhibition of K(IR)6.2/SUR1, but had no effect on homomeric(More)
Structure-function analyses of K+ channels identify a common pore architecture whose gating depends on diverse signal sensing elements. The "gatekeepers" of the long, ATP-inhibited KIR6.0 pores of KATP channels are ABC proteins, SURs, receptors for channel opening and closing drugs. Several competing models for SUR/KIR coupling exist. We show that SUR TMD0,(More)
Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a family of proteins having a unique distribution in the brain and are thought to be important in buffering intracellular calcium. Glutamate neurotoxicity is a process by which the over-activation of glutamate receptors can cause the influx of excessive extracellular calcium and neuronal cell death. It has been proposed(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels have been implicated in the mechanism of neuronal ischemic preconditioning. To evaluate the role of neuronal/beta-cell-type K(ATP) channels, SUR1 null (Sur1KO) mice lacking (K(IR)6.x/SUR1)(4) K(ATP) channels were subjected to a preconditioning protocol with the use of double carotid occlusion. (More)
The intra-islet insulin hypothesis proposes that the decrement in beta-cell insulin secretion during hypoglycemia provides an activation signal for alpha-cells to release glucagon. A more recent hypothesis proposes that zinc atoms suppress glucagon secretion via their ability to open alpha-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Since insulin binds zinc, and zinc(More)