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Obesity is the driving force behind the worldwide increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycaemia is a hallmark of diabetes and is largely due to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. The medial hypothalamus is a major integrator of nutritional and hormonal signals, which play pivotal roles not only in the regulation of energy balance(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) are heteromultimers of sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits (K(IR)6.x) with a (SUR-K(IR)6.x)4 stoichiometry. Association is specific for K(IR)6.x and affects receptor glycosylation and cophotolabeling of K(IR)6.x by 125I-azidoglibenclamide. Association produces(More)
Ntp and Ctp, synthetic peptides based on the N- and C-terminal sequences of K(IR)6.0, respectively, were used to probe gating of K(IR)6.0/SUR K(ATP) channels. Micromolar Ntp dose-dependently increased the mean open channel probability in ligand-free solution (P(O(max))) and attenuated the ATP inhibition of K(IR)6.2/SUR1, but had no effect on homomeric(More)
The modulation of motor behavior by protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways in nigrostriatal neurons was examined by using a genetic intervention approach. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors that encode a catalytic domain of rat PKCbetaII (PkcDelta) were developed. PkcDelta exhibited a constitutively active protein kinase activity with a(More)
Structure-function analyses of K+ channels identify a common pore architecture whose gating depends on diverse signal sensing elements. The "gatekeepers" of the long, ATP-inhibited KIR6.0 pores of KATP channels are ABC proteins, SURs, receptors for channel opening and closing drugs. Several competing models for SUR/KIR coupling exist. We show that SUR TMD0,(More)
Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a family of proteins having a unique distribution in the brain and are thought to be important in buffering intracellular calcium. Glutamate neurotoxicity is a process by which the over-activation of glutamate receptors can cause the influx of excessive extracellular calcium and neuronal cell death. It has been proposed(More)
Clinicians often rely on visual inspection and descriptive terms to documents a patient's forward shoulder posture. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and intrarater reliability of four objective techniques to measure forward shoulder posture. Subjects were 25 males and 24 females. Subjects had a lateral cervical spine radiograph taken,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels have been implicated in the mechanism of neuronal ischemic preconditioning. To evaluate the role of neuronal/beta-cell-type K(ATP) channels, SUR1 null (Sur1KO) mice lacking (K(IR)6.x/SUR1)(4) K(ATP) channels were subjected to a preconditioning protocol with the use of double carotid occlusion. (More)
The intra-islet insulin hypothesis proposes that the decrement in beta-cell insulin secretion during hypoglycemia provides an activation signal for alpha-cells to release glucagon. A more recent hypothesis proposes that zinc atoms suppress glucagon secretion via their ability to open alpha-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Since insulin binds zinc, and zinc(More)
STUDY DESIGN Single-group repeated measures with 2 raters. OBJECTIVES To determine the interrater and intrarater reliability of water volumetry and the figure of eight method on subjects with ankle joint swelling. BACKGROUND Measurements of ankle swelling are commonly performed to determine the nature and stage of injury and to monitor progress made(More)