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Since the commencement of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), great effort has been put into increasing its spatial resolution and signal specificity from vessel-weighted to more tissue-specific signals. The working assumption is that the "tissue" signals closely mirror changes at the neuronal level. While great progress has been made, the basic(More)
One of the cardinal pathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of senile, or amyloid, plaques. Transgenic mice have been developed that express one or more of the genes responsible for familial AD in humans. Doubly transgenic mice develop "human-like" plaques, providing a mechanism to study amyloid plaque biology in a controlled(More)
Engagement of a T cell to an APC induces the formation of an immunological synapse as well as reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) toward the APC. How signals emanating from the TCR induce MTOC polarization is not known. One group of proteins known to play a critical role in asymmetric cell division and cell polarization is the(More)
This work describes a methodology for quantifying levels of total choline-containing compounds (tCho) in the breast using in vivo (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS) at high field (4 Tesla). Water is used as an internal reference compound to account for the partial volume of adipose tissue. Peak amplitudes are estimated by fitting one peak at a time over a narrow(More)
— We describe asynchronous circuits that can relay spikes between multiple chips in a grid. These circuits interface with an on-chip SRAM to implement programmable connectivity among chips. We introduce a packet format that is compatible with updating the SRAM. From a high level specification, we synthesized and fabricated these circuits in an area of(More)
The ability to detect individual Alzheimer's amyloid plaques in vivo by magnetic resonance microimaging (MRI) should improve diagnosis and also accelerate discovery of effective therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we perform in vivo and ex vivo MRI on double transgenic AD mice as well as wild-type mice at varying ages and correlate these(More)
Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T(More)
The ability of on-resonance T(1rho) (T(1rho)) and off-resonance T(1rho) (T(1rho)(off)) measurements to indicate acute cerebral ischemia in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was investigated at 4.7 T. T(1rho) was determined with B(1) fields of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 G, and T(1rho)(off) with five offset frequencies ((Delta)omega)(More)
Activation of T cells induces the production of T cell growth and survival factor interleukin (IL) 2. Regulatory T cells intrinsically fail to induce IL-2 expression upon activation and can suppress IL-2 production in conventional T cells. Thus, the control of IL-2 expression is critically important to T cell immune responses, yet the mechanisms remain(More)
Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) are cardinal features of asthma, but the signaling pathways that promote these changes are poorly understood. Tyrosine phosphorylation is tightly regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, but little is known about(More)