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Since the commencement of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), great effort has been put into increasing its spatial resolution and signal specificity from vessel-weighted to more tissue-specific signals. The working assumption is that the "tissue" signals closely mirror changes at the neuronal level. While great progress has been made, the basic(More)
Costimulatory signals complement or modify the signals provided to a lymphocyte through antigen receptors. For productive T-cell activation, the CD28 molecule is apparently the most important, although not the only, costimulatory receptor. CD28 can provide a signal that is at least partially distinct from that delivered by the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3(More)
This work describes a methodology for quantifying levels of total choline-containing compounds (tCho) in the breast using in vivo (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS) at high field (4 Tesla). Water is used as an internal reference compound to account for the partial volume of adipose tissue. Peak amplitudes are estimated by fitting one peak at a time over a narrow(More)
One of the cardinal pathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of senile, or amyloid, plaques. Transgenic mice have been developed that express one or more of the genes responsible for familial AD in humans. Doubly transgenic mice develop "human-like" plaques, providing a mechanism to study amyloid plaque biology in a controlled(More)
The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) CD148 is thought to have an inhibitory function in signaling and proliferation in nonhematopoietic cells. However, its role in the immune system has not been thoroughly studied. Our analysis of CD148 loss-of-function mice showed that CD148 has a positive regulatory function in B cells and macrophages,(More)
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of empathic lead user analysis for uncovering latent customer needs that could lead to breakthrough product ideas. Empathic lead users are defined as ordinary customers (or designers) who are transformed into lead users by experiencing the product in radically new ways, via extraordinary user(More)
The ability to detect individual Alzheimer's amyloid plaques in vivo by magnetic resonance microimaging (MRI) should improve diagnosis and also accelerate discovery of effective therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we perform in vivo and ex vivo MRI on double transgenic AD mice as well as wild-type mice at varying ages and correlate these(More)
Engagement of the T cell with Ag on an APC results in a series of immediate signaling events emanating from the stimulation of the TCR. These events include the induced phosphorylation of a number of cellular proteins with a subsequent increase in intracellular calcium and the restructuring of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton within the T cell. This(More)
Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T(More)
Engagement of a T cell to an APC induces the formation of an immunological synapse as well as reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) toward the APC. How signals emanating from the TCR induce MTOC polarization is not known. One group of proteins known to play a critical role in asymmetric cell division and cell polarization is the(More)