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Accurately processing orientation information is a fundamental component of visual performance. Single-unit recordings have shown that the orientation tuning of individual neurons in macaque cortical areas V1 and V2 is reduced dramatically with age (M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, M. Pu, & A. G. Leventhal, 2000; S. Yu, Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhou, & A. G. Leventhal,(More)
When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. Over a wide range of stimulus(More)
Normal aging is associated with progressive functional losses in perception, cognition, and memory. Although the root causes of age-related cognitive decline are incompletely understood, psychophysical and neuropsychological evidence suggests that a significant contribution stems from poorer signal-to-noise conditions and down-regulated neuromodulatory(More)
Viewing a distorted face induces large aftereffects in the appearance of an undistorted face. The authors examined the processes underlying this adaptation by comparing how selective the aftereffects are for different dimensions of the images including size, spatial frequency content, contrast, and color. Face aftereffects had weaker selectivity for changes(More)
The watercolor effect (WCE) is a phenomenon of long-range color assimilation occurring when a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour; the brighter color spreads into the entire enclosed area. Here, we determined the optimal chromatic parameters and the cone signals supporting the WCE. To that(More)
Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the small (S) genomic RNAs of six California (CAL) serogroup bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae: genus Bunyavirus) were determined. The S RNAs of two California encephalitis virus strains, two Jamestown Canyon virus strains, Jerry Slough virus, Melao virus, Keystone virus and Trivittatus virus contained the overlapping nucleocapsid (N)(More)
If global warming occurs in California, daily mean temperatures may increase by 3 to 5 degrees C, precipitation patterns will change, and sea level may rise 1 m. Studies were done on effect of temperature changes on survival of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, the primary vector of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses,(More)
The extrinsic incubation rate (inverse of the time in days from infection to median transmission) of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses by laboratory strains of Culex tarsalis Coquillett increased as a linear function of incubation temperatures from 10 to 30 degrees C. The estimated temperatures for zero(More)
The contributions of optical and neural factors to age-related losses in spatial vision are not fully understood. We used closed-loop adaptive optics to test the visual benefit of correcting monochromatic high-order aberrations (HOAs) on spatial vision for observers ranging in age from 18 to 81 years. Contrast sensitivity was measured monocularly using a(More)