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Seven experiments were conducted to examine the role of attention in automatization. Ss searched 2-word displays for members of a target category in divided-attention, focused-attention, and dual-task conditions. The main issue was whether attention conditions would affect what Ss learned about co-occurrences of the words in the displays. The attention(More)
The instance theory of automaticity claims that people learn what they attend to and express what they learned in transfer if they attend to the same things in the same way. These hypotheses were tested in 8 category search experiments in which target position was cued by color (red or green). The main question was whether target color would be encoded in(More)
We sketch an initial version of a theory intended to account for the role of attention in the acquisition and expression of automaticity, and we test some initial predictions. The theory combines Logan's instance theory of automaticity and Bundesen's theory of visual attention, with Bundesen's theory determining what Logan's theory learns. We report four(More)
The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a well-validated and widely used forced-choice symptom validity test. However, little is known about how TOMM performance is affected by pain. The present study evaluated the sensitivity of the TOMM to pain induced in healthy participants via the cold-presser test. Participants (n=20 per group) were administered the(More)
Pain patients often report cognitive symptoms and many will include them in their claims of disability. The Processing Speed Index (PSI) of the WAIS-III was investigated as one aspect of cognitive functioning in six groups. Slight impairment was found for PSI and Digit Symbol subtest performance, but not for Symbol Search, in a Laboratory-induced Pain group(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2nd edition (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) validity indicators in the detection of malingering in clinical patients with chronic pain using a hybrid clinical-known groups/simulator design. The sample consisted of patients(More)
The degree to which patients should be prompted to give their best effort has not been adequately addressed in the literature, nor has the issue of the extent to which they should be informed that measures of effort will be included in the assessment battery. Three groups of undergraduates were given three different instructional sets prior to completing a(More)
This study used criterion groups validation to determine the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in detecting malingered pain-related disability (MPRD) across a range of cutoffs in chronic pain patients undergoing psychological evaluation (n = 604). Data from patients with traumatic brain injury (n = 45) and dementia (n = 59) are presented for(More)
According to fear-avoidance models of pain perception, heightened fear of pain may increase disruptive effects of pain; however, the extent to which this affects self-reported pain severity versus physiological indices of pain is not well delineated. The current study examined self-report measures and physiological indices of pain during a cold pressor (CP)(More)
Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is an indicator used to assess the validity of cognitive test performance. Scores of 7 or lower suggest poor effort or negative response bias. The possibility that RDS scores are also affected by pain has not been addressed thus potentially threatening RDS specificity. The current study used cold pressor-induced pain to investigate(More)