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Ultrasound is used in many medical applications, such as imaging, blood flow analysis, dentistry, liposuction, tumor and fibroid ablation, and kidney stone disruption. In the past, low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was the main method to downsize multilamellar (micron range) vesicles into small (nano scale) unilamellar vesicles. Recently, the ability of(More)
This paper discusses the state of the art in a relatively new approach in the field of controlled drug delivery-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems. Such systems are capable of adjusting drug release rates in response to a physiological need. The fundamental principles of externally and self-regulated delivery systems are examined. Special attention(More)
The reproducible regulation of release of a macromolecule (bovine serum albumin) from biocompatible polymer systems has been demonstrated. Small magnetic spheres or cylindrical magnets were embedded within the polymer matrix which was then subjected to an oscillating magnetic field. In this fashion baseline release rates could be increased 5- to 10-fold(More)
Application of ultrasound enhances skin permeability to a variety of molecules (sonophoresis). The enhancement induced by ultrasound is particularly significant at low-frequencies (f<100 kHz, low-frequency sonophoresis). This review summarizes mechanisms and applications of low-frequency sonophoresis. In vitro, in vivo, as well as clinical studies(More)
The ability of low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) to trigger the release of drugs from nano sterically stabilized liposomes (nSSL) in vitro, without affecting the drugs' chemical integrity or biological potency, has been previously shown. Herein, the ability of LFUS to (a) trigger the release of cisplatin from nSSL in vivo, and (b) affect the therapeutic(More)
Application of low-frequency ultrasound has been shown to enhance transdermal transport of drugs (low-frequency sonophoresis). In this paper, we show that the efficacy of low-frequency ultrasound in enhancing transdermal transport can be further increased by its combination with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a well-known surfactant. The dependence of the(More)
UNLABELLED PURPOSE. Heparin and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are the most commonly used anticoagulants and are administered by intravenous or subcutaneous injections. However, injections of heparin have the potential risk of bleeding complications and the requirement of close monitoring in some cases. We hypothesized that transdermal delivery of(More)
Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Application of ultrasound to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of(More)