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Atrogin1/MAFbx is an ubiquitin ligase that mediates muscle atrophy in a variety of catabolic states. We recently found that H2O2 stimulates atrogin1/MAFbx gene expression. Since the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates both reactive oxygen production and general activity of the ubiquitin conjugating pathway, we hypothesized that(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen in hospitals. Current antimicrobial regimens for eradicating colonizing strains are not well defined and are often complicated by the emergence of resistance. The combination of novobiocin plus rifampin in vitro and in vivo was found to prevent the emergence of resistant populations of(More)
Single neuron models are typical functional replica of the biological neuron that are derived using their individual and group responses in networks. In recent past, a lot of work in this area has produced advanced neuron models for both analog and binary data patterns. Popular among these are the higher-order neurons, fuzzy neurons and other polynomial(More)
Antimicrobial resistance results in increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of health care. Prevention of the emergence of resistance and the dissemination of resistant microorganisms will reduce these adverse effects and their attendant costs. Appropriate antimicrobial stewardship that includes optimal selection, dose, and duration of treatment, as well(More)
Risk factors and mortality associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infection or colonization were examined at a tertiary care hospital by comparing 145 patients who had VREF isolates (cases) to 145 patients with vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium (VSEF) isolates (controls). The number of deaths per 100 person-days of(More)
OBJECTIVE. Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) cause substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Items in the environment harbor microorganisms that may contribute to HAIs. Reduction in surface bioburden may be an effective strategy to reduce HAIs. The inherent biocidal properties of copper surfaces offer a theoretical advantage to conventional cleaning,(More)
A PCR technique to differentiate pathogenic enteric Escherichia coli strains in a field setting was evaluated. Among 76 children with acute diarrhea, this technique identified 12 children (16%) with enterotoxigenic E. coli, 6 (8%) with enteropathogenic E. coli, and 1 (1%) with enteroinvasive E. coli infection. Compared with the conventional assays, the PCR(More)
The contribution of environmental surface contamination with pathogenic organisms to the development of health care-associated infections (HAI) has not been well defined. The microbial burden (MB) associated with commonly touched surfaces in intensive care units (ICUs) was determined by sampling six objects in 16 rooms in ICUs in three hospitals over 43(More)
Controlling antimicrobial costs has preoccupied infectious diseases physicians (IDPs). IDPs have controlled antimicrobial costs by the use of eight strategies: education, formulary restriction, pharmacy justification, formulary substitution, computer surveillance, laboratory item cost listing, purchase plans, and multidisciplinary approaches. Most(More)