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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells suggested to be critical for tumor maintenance, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Prospective identification and targeting of CSCs are therefore priorities for the development of novel therapeutic paradigms. Although CSC enrichment has been achieved with cell surface proteins including CD133(More)
There is a well-established literature indicating a relationship between iron in brain tissue and Alzheimer's disease (AD). More recently, it has become clear that AD is associated with neuroinflammatory and oxidative changes which probably result from microglial activation. In this study, we investigated the correlative changes in microglial activation,(More)
Glioblastomas are the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor. Recent studies implicate an important role for a restricted population of neoplastic cells (glioma stem cells (GSCs)) in glioma maintenance and recurrence. We now demonstrate that GSCs preferentially express two interleukin 6 (IL6) receptors: IL6 receptor alpha (IL6R alpha) and(More)
BACKGROUND In order to study the mechanisms of action of Troglitazone (TGZ) in vivo in Type 2 diabetes, its effects were studied on glucose metabolism, lipolysis and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) kinetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed in 24 diet-treated patients randomized to(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of AD is higher in women even when data are adjusted for age. OBJECTIVE We set out to compare changes in 9-month-old male and female mice which overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) with presenilin(More)
High-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grade III anaplastic astrocytoma and grade IV glioblastoma multiforme), the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumors, display a cellular hierarchy with self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex. While the CSC hypothesis has been an attractive model to describe many aspects of tumor(More)
Malignant gliomas contain a population of self-renewing tumorigenic stem-like cells; however, it remains unclear how these glioma stem cells (GSCs) self-renew or generate cellular diversity at the single-cell level. Asymmetric cell division is a proposed mechanism to maintain cancer stem cells, yet the modes of cell division that GSCs utilize remain(More)
OBJECTIVE Glioblastomas (GBMs) are lethal cancers that display cellular hierarchies parallel to normal brain. At the apex are GBM stem cells (GSCs), which are relatively resistant to conventional therapy. Interactions with the adjacent perivascular niche are an important driver of malignancy and self-renewal in GSCs. Extracellular matrix (ECM) cues instruct(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL), a key inducer of osteoclastogenesis via its receptor RANK. We previously showed that RANK, RANKL, and OPG are able to form a tertiary complex and that OPG must be also considered as a direct effector of osteoclast functions. As OPG contains a(More)
Stem cells reside in niches that regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The identity of a stem cell is linked with the ability to interact with its niche through adhesion mechanisms. To identify targets that disrupt cancer stem cell (CSC) adhesion, we performed a flow cytometry screen on patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) cells and(More)