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Identification of the genes underlying complex phenotypes and the definition of the evolutionary forces that have shaped eukaryotic genomes are among the current challenges in molecular genetics. Variation in gene copy number is increasingly recognized as a source of inter-individual differences in genome sequence and has been proposed as a driving force(More)
RATIONALE Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) drives atherosclerosis through the dual metabolic stresses of cholesterol-enriched erythrocyte membranes and pro-oxidant heme/iron. When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage(More)
Atherosclerosis is still an important disease. It accounts for 39% of deaths in the U.K. and 12 million U.S citizens have atherosclerosis-associated disease. Atherosclerosis may exert clinical effects by slow narrowing, producing stable angina or dramatic rupture, producing acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and death.(More)
Aims Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional regulators. PPARd has an established role in metabolism, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, little is known about its function in endothelial homeostasis. We investigated the role of PPARd and its co-activator,(More)
AIM Age and injury cause structural and functional changes in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) that influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Although paracrine signalling is widely believed to drive phenotypic changes in caSMCs, here we show that developmental origin within the fetal epicardium can have a profound effect as well.(More)
OBJECTIVE We have previously shown that human macrophages induce human plaque vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis by cell-cell proximity, Fas-L, and nitric oxide (NO), thereby predisposing to plaque rupture. This study sought to analyze whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) contributes additionally to macrophage-induced VSMC apoptosis. (More)
Chemokines are important mediators of macrophage and T-cell recruitment in a number of inflammatory pathologies, and chemokines expressed in atherosclerotic lesions may play an important role in mononuclear cell recruitment and macrophage differentiation. We have analyzed the expression of the linked chromosome 16q13 genes that encode macrophage-derived(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) kills approximately 2 million people each year. MTb must drive host tissue destruction to disseminate and also to cause pulmonary cavitation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, gelatinase B) is implicated in this Tb-related immunopathology. We demonstrate that conditioned media from MTb-infected monocytes (CoMTb), but not(More)
Human atherosclerotic plaques that rupture are characterized by relatively low vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and high inflammatory cell contents. Ruptured plaques also contain higher numbers of apoptotic VSMCs than do stable lesions, suggesting that VSMC apoptosis may promote plaque rupture. We examined the ability of human monocytes/macrophages to(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary cavitation is fundamental to the global success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms of this lung destruction are poorly understood. The biochemistry of lung matrix predicts matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involvement in immunopathology. METHODS We investigated gene expression of all MMPs, proteins with a disintegrin(More)