Joseph J. Boyle

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Identification of the genes underlying complex phenotypes and the definition of the evolutionary forces that have shaped eukaryotic genomes are among the current challenges in molecular genetics. Variation in gene copy number is increasingly recognized as a source of inter-individual differences in genome sequence and has been proposed as a driving force(More)
Intraplaque hemorrhage accelerates atherosclerosis via oxidant stress and contributes to lesion development and destabilization. Normally, macrophages scavenge hemoglobin-haptoglobin (HbHp) complexes via CD163, and this process provokes the secretion of the anti-inflammatory atheroprotective cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. We therefore tested the hypothesis(More)
We explored the role of the classic complement pathway in atherogenesis by intercrossing C1q-deficient mice (C1qa-/-) with low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (Ldlr-/-). Mice were fed a normal rodent diet until 22 weeks of age. Aortic root lesions were threefold larger in C1qa-/-/Ldlr-/- mice compared with Ldlr-/- mice (3.72 +/- 1.0% aortic root(More)
RATIONALE Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) drives atherosclerosis through the dual metabolic stresses of cholesterol-enriched erythrocyte membranes and pro-oxidant heme/iron. When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage(More)
Atherosclerosis is still an important disease. It accounts for 39% of deaths in the U.K. and 12 million U.S citizens have atherosclerosis-associated disease. Atherosclerosis may exert clinical effects by slow narrowing, producing stable angina or dramatic rupture, producing acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and death.(More)
OBJECTIVE We have previously shown that macrophages induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis in vitro by cell-cell proximity and Fas-L/Fas interactions. Because NO is a short-range mediator, we tested whether NO mediates macrophage-induced VSMC apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors markedly inhibited macrophage-induced(More)
Apoptosis (programmed cell death) of vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages has recently been demonstrated in the following: (a) human atherosclerotic plaques; (b) physiological remodelling of the vessel; and (c) a variety of disease states. Apoptosis is a highly regulated mechanism of death, controlled by the interactions between the following: (i)(More)
We have identified a novel protein-disulfide isomerase and named it endothelial protein-disulfide isomerase (EndoPDI) because of its high expression in endothelial cells. Isolation of the full-length cDNA showed EndoPDI to be a 48 kDa protein that has three APWCGHC thioredoxin motifs in contrast to the two present in archetypal PDI. Ribonuclease protection(More)
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulin M (IgM) natural antibodies bind oxidatively-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoptotic cells and have been implicated as being important for protection against atherosclerosis. We have directly investigated the requirement for IgM by studying the effects of IgM deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice. (More)
In addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, statins exhibit lipid-independent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory actions. However, high concentrations are typically required to induce these effects in vitro, raising questions concerning therapeutic relevance. We present evidence that endothelial cell sensitivity to statins depends upon shear stress.(More)