Joseph I Brunner

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Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs),(More)
Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout(More)
Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism(More)
Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) induce sleep by blocking orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor-mediated activities responsible for regulating wakefulness. DORAs represent a potential alternative mechanism to the current standard of care that includes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-positive allosteric modulators, eszopiclone and zolpidem. This(More)
Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)
Despite the substantial impact of sleep disturbances on human health and the many years of study dedicated to understanding sleep pathologies, the underlying genetic mechanisms that govern sleep and wake largely remain unknown. Recently, the authors completed large-scale genetic and gene expression analyses in a segregating inbred mouse cross and identified(More)
In an ongoing effort to explore the use of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia, dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) were structurally modified, resulting in compounds selective for the OX2R subtype and culminating in the discovery of 23, a highly potent, OX2R-selective molecule that exhibited a promising in vivo profile. Further(More)
Antagonism of orexin receptors has shown clinical efficacy as a novel paradigm for the treatment of insomnia and related disorders. Herein, molecules related to the dual orexin receptor antagonist filorexant were transformed into compounds that were selective for the OX2R subtype. Judicious selection of the substituents on the pyridine ring and benzamide(More)
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