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OBJECTIVES This is a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the frequency and associated features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a large, diverse sample of infected individuals in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHODS A total of 1,555 HIV-infected adults were recruited from 6 university clinics(More)
Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported. Because large HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) groups have not been studied with similar methods in the pre-CART and CART eras, it is unclear(More)
The present study examined neuropsychological (NP) functioning and associated medical, neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and psychiatric findings in 389 nondemented males infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), and in 111 uninfected controls. Using a comprehensive NP test battery, we found increased rates of impairment(More)
To determine the neuropathological substrate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders, we examined persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before their death and related their antemortem neuropsychological performance to postmortem indicators of HIV encephalitis, viral burden, and presynaptic and postsynaptic(More)
To determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral burden measurements can assist in the evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders, we quantified HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in CSF. Because previous findings suggested that disease stage, lymphocytic pleocytosis, and HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma may influence CSF viral(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in China has expanded rapidly in recent years, but little is known about the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in this part of the world. We administered a comprehensive Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery to 203 HIV+ and 198 HIV- former plasma donors in the(More)
This review provides a critical analysis of the central nervous system effects of acute and chronic methamphetamine (MA) use, which is linked to numerous adverse psychosocial, neuropsychiatric, and medical problems. A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological effects of MA abuse/dependence revealed broadly medium effect sizes, showing deficits in episodic(More)
Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), are at increased risk for neurobehavioral impairment, particularly in later stages of the disease. Even patients in the medically asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic stages of infection may show mild deficits on comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) test batteries, although the(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare rates and anatomical patterns of brain atrophy during 3 stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. DESIGN Comparisons of multiple serial brain magnetic resonance images in men without HIV infection and HIV-infected men in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, Ga) stages A, B, and C. SETTING(More)
OBJECTIVE While HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), the clinical relevance of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), the most common HAND diagnosis, remains unclear. We investigated whether HIV-infected persons with ANI were more likely than those who were neurocognitively(More)