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The first-generation injectable microstimulator was glass encased with an external tantalum capacitor electrode. This second-generation device uses a hermetically sealed ceramic case with platinum electrodes. Zener diodes protect the electronics from defibrillation shocks and from electrostatic discharge. The capacitor is sealed inside the case so that it(More)
We describe the design, fabrication, and output capabilities of a microminiature electrical stimulator that can be injected in or near nerves and muscles. Each single-channel microstimulator consists of a cylindrical glass capsule with hermetically sealed electrodes in either end (2-mm diameter x 13-mm overall length). Power and digital control data can be(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the feasibility of implanting microstimulators to deliver programmed nerve stimulation for sequenced muscle activation to recover arm-hand functions. DESIGN By using a minimally invasive procedure and local anesthesia, 5 to 7 microstimulators can be safely and comfortably implanted adjacent to targeted radial nerve branches in the(More)
Quantitative bioengineering tests were performed on 30 spastic cerebral palsy (CP) patients who underwent chronic cerebellar stimulation (CCS) using the fully implantable pulse generator (Neurolith 601, 1.1-1.8 microC/cm2/phase). Using respiratory inductive plethysmography to measure 8 patients with paroxysmal and/or ataxic breathing patterns, 5 were shown(More)
A strong, hermetic, reliable, and biocompatible ceramic-to-metal seal is essential for many implantable medical devices. Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZPs) and a titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were selected as the ceramic and metal components of the seal because both materials have excellent mechanical properties and favorable(More)
The Alfred Mann Foundation is developing a network of up to 850 injectable devices that have stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. Each of the devices is coordinated via radio signals a hundred times a second by an external small module. All the devices are powered by lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The stimulating, sensing, and(More)
The Alfred Mann Foundation is completing development of a coordinated network of BION microstimulator/sensor (hereinafter implant) that has broad stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. The network consists of a master control unit (MCU) in communication with a group of BION implants. Each implant is powered by a custom lithium-ion rechargeable(More)
The wireless electronic nervous system interface known as the functional electrical stimulation-battery powered bion system is being developed at the Alfred Mann Foundation. It contains a real-time propagated wave micro-powered multichannel communication system. This system is designed to send bi-directional messages between an external master controller(More)
Transvenous right ventricular pacemaker catheters were implanted in 18 mongrel dogs for periods of 2 to 18 months (average 4.9 months). Heart block was produced in 15 of these dogs by injection of 37 per cent formaldehyde into the interatrial septum. In the other three dogs which served as controls, no heart block was produced and no electrical stimulation(More)