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A centrifugal analyzer and a spectrophotometer were compared for routine analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, GSH-S transferase, and GSH reductase. Lung, liver, and kidney from 60-day-old male rats were used as the source of enzymes. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the accuracy and precision of the(More)
Criteria for the selection of aerosol concentrations to be used in inhalation studies assessing the toxicity and carcinogenicity of chemical substances were discussed by the authors in a meeting sponsored by the National Toxicology Program. Concepts in the design of aerosol inhalation studies emerged from that meeting and are being communicated through this(More)
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol. Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50(More)
2-Butoxyethanol (2BE) is used extensively in the production of cleaning agents and solvents. It is primarily metabolized in the liver to 2-butoxyacetic acid (2BAA), which is believed to be responsible for 2BE toxicities associated with hemolysis of red blood cells. The objective of the study was to characterize the systemic disposition of 2BE and 2BAA in(More)
Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) is a high production chemical used almost exclusively in the production of polychloroprene (neoprene) elastomer. Because of its structural similarity to isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) and to 1,3-butadiene, a potent trans-species carcinogen, inhalation studies were performed on chloroprene to characterize its(More)
Chromium picolinate monohydrate (CPM) is a synthetic compound heavily marketed to consumers in the United States for use as a dietary supplement for muscle building and weight loss. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) tested the toxicity of this compound based on the potential for widespread consumer exposure and lack of information about its toxicity.(More)
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a widely used industrial solvent and was selected for carcinogenesis studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of its potential for widespread occupational exposure in humans and a lack of information on animal toxicity and carcinogenicity. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0,(More)
Whole-body inhalation toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were performed with the widely used fixative and cold-sterilant glutaraldehyde. Groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to glutaraldehyde (rats: 0, 250, 500, or 750 ppb; mice: 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppb) 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 104 weeks. Survival of 500- and(More)
2-Butoxyethanol (2BE) is used extensively in the production of cleaning agents and as a general solvent. It is primarily metabolized in the liver to 2-butoxyacetic acid (2BAA), which is excreted in urine. The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the toxicokinetic behavior of 2BE and 2BAA in(More)
1,3-Butadiene, a large-production volume chemical used mainly in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, was found to induce multiple-organ carcinogenicity in male and female B6C3F1 mice at exposure concentrations (625 and 1250 ppm) equivalent to and below the OSHA standard of 1000 ppm. Since this study was terminated after 60 weeks of exposure because of(More)