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The infectivity of three Cryptosporidium parvum isolates (Iowa [calf], UCP [calf], and TAMU [horse]) of the C genotype was investigated in healthy adults. After exposure, volunteers recorded the number and form of stools passed and symptoms experienced. Oocyst excretion was assessed by immunofluorescence. The ID50 differed among isolates: Iowa, 87 (SE, 19;(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most commonly isolated pathogen responsible for travelers' diarrhea and the cause of up to 650 million cases of pediatric diarrhea per year in the developing world. As a safe alternative to the prophylactic use of antibiotics, a hyperimmune bovine milk antibody product with specific activity against purified(More)
Orally administered bovine immunoglobulins with specific activity against colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) could provide passive protection against ETEC challenge in volunteers. Twenty healthy adult volunteers ingested either a placebo or a partially enteric-coated preparation of bovine immunoglobulins with activity against(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic Apicomplexan pathogen, causes profound diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in patients with AIDS. A less severe, self-limited disease occurs in immunocompetent individuals, particularly children, animal handlers, and residents of the developing world. Very little is known about the biology of the organism, the(More)
The type III polysaccharides of group B Streptococcus in its native state chemically consists of glucose, galactose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. The core of this polysaccharide lacks sialic acid and precipitates with type III antiserum to give a partial identity with the precipitate between the native antigen and this serum. The core determinant is(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum causes acute diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals and a severe life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDs patients. No efficacious therapy for cryptosporidiosis has yet been reported. However, treatment of some patients with cryptosporidiosis with hyperimmune bovine colostrum has ameliorated or(More)
Since the infamous outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, USA, of water-borne cryptosporidiosis affecting over 400,000 people, there have been at least 20 smaller outbreaks associated with this parasite in the UK and North America. These events have led to an explosion of interest in and research on the nature of cryptosporidiosis as a dangerous water-borne pathogen,(More)
Bovine hyperimmune anti-Cryptosporidium colostrum immunoglobulin (BACI) decreases the intensity of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in vitro. We investigated the prophylactic effect of BACI in healthy adults challenged with C. parvum. After we established an oocyst dose that resulted in 100% infection in four volunteers (baseline group), 16 volunteers were(More)
Intraabdominal abscesses (IAA) caused by Bacteroides fragilis are a major sequela to colonic spillage into the peritoneum. The development of an animal model that closely reproduces the disease observed in humans permitted careful inspection of the cellular and/or humoral contributions to the development and control of this disease. The results obtained(More)
Passive antibody immunotherapy (PAI) for cryptosporidiosis is a treatment strategy that has been actively pursued in laboratory studies and early-stage clinical studies for the last decade. Several experimental approaches have been initiated, including use of bovine colostrum and colostral antibodies (hyperimmune and natural), monoclonal antibodies, chicken(More)