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Ubiquitin-dependent signaling during the DNA damage response (DDR) to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is initiated by two E3 ligases, RNF8 and RNF168, targeting histone H2A and H2AX. RNF8 is the first ligase recruited to the damage site, and RNF168 follows RNF8-dependent ubiquitination. This suggests that RNF8 initiates H2A/H2AX ubiquitination with K63-linked(More)
Protein ubiquitination is critical for numerous cellular functions, including DNA damage response pathways. Histones are the most abundant monoubiquitin conjugates in mammalian cells; however, the regulation and the function of monoubiquitinated H2A (uH2A) and H2B (uH2B) remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about mammalian(More)
Despite intense investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate pluripotency, the process of initial fate commitment of embryonic stem (ES) cells is still poorly understood. We used a genome-wide short hairpin RNA screen in mouse ES cells to identify genes that are essential for initiation of differentiation. Knockdown of the scaffolding(More)
Histone ubiquitination at DNA breaks is required for activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. How the dynamic removal of this modification by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) impacts genome maintenance in vivo is largely unknown. To address this question, we generated mice deficient for Ub-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ), a histone H2A(More)
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