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OBJECTIVE To examine associations of the frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants with demographic, behavioural and psychosocial factors and dietary intake in African American adults. METHODS Self-reported data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 658 African Americans, aged 20-70 years, in North Carolina. An 11-page questionnaire(More)
Millions of Americans use dietary supplements with little knowledge about their benefits or risks. We examined associations of various herbal/specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk. Men and women, 50 to 76 years, in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort completed a 24-page baseline questionnaire that captured duration (years) and frequency(More)
Autism is a complex neurodevelopment disorder with numerous possible genetic and environmental influences. We retrospectively examined the laboratory data of 168 children sequentially referred to our facility with a confirmed diagnosis of autism or pervasive developmental disabilities (PDD). Since folate and methylation (single carbon metabolism) are vital(More)
Humans eating diets deficient in the essential nutrient choline can develop organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in choline metabolism influence the dietary requirement of this nutrient. Fifty-seven humans were fed a low choline diet until they developed organ dysfunction or for up to 42(More)
OBJECTIVE A novel approach to regulate obesity-associated adipose inflammation may be through metabolic reprogramming of macrophages (MΦs). Broadly speaking, MΦs dependent on glucose are pro-inflammatory, classically activated MΦs (CAM), which contribute to adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. In contrast, MΦs that primarily metabolize fatty acids(More)
OBJECTIVE Microsatellite instability (MSI) is one form of genomic instability that occurs in 10% to 20% of sporadic colon tumors and almost all hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancers. However, little is known about how environmental factors (e.g., diet) may influence MSI in sporadic colon cancer. METHODS We used data from a population-based case-control(More)
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD) to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF) consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to(More)
OBJECTIVE Recruitment of African Americans into health research studies is a major challenge. This report describes a study of different methods and strategies to recruit African Americans into a population-based assessment of cancer behavioral risk factors. METHODS African Americans ages 18 to 70 years in North Carolina (n = 5,000) were randomly selected(More)
Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association(More)
We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire(More)