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To create plots with differential levels ofEuseius, malathion sprays, highly toxic to phytoseiids but of low toxicity to citrus red mite,Panonychus citri (CRM), and citrus thrips,Scirtothrips citri, were applied to blocks of “Valencia” oranges for three seasons (1984, 1985 and 1986) and “Eureka” lemons for one season (1985). Releases ofEuseius spp. were(More)
In 1996, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied almost exclusively on biological control to strategies dependent on insecticides to maintain thrips densities below economically damaging levels. By 1998, average losses due to thrips feeding damage in(More)
Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of several insect pests in cotton (Gossypium spp.), vegetables, and citrus (Citrus spp.). We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods, including four parasitoid species--Aphytis melinus Debach, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, Eretmocerus(More)
A 2-yr study was conducted in a citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cultivar Valencia) to determine the influence of plant water stress on the population dynamics of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). Experimental treatments included irrigation at 100% of the crop evapotranspiration rate (ET(c)) and continuous(More)
A competitive ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique was evaluated for quantifying titres of imidacloprid in homogenates of leaf discs sampled from avocado plants treated with systemic applications of imidacloprid 240 g litre(-1) SC (Admire). Matrix effects were evident with undiluted leaf tissue homogenates, but these were effectively(More)
Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be(More)
BACKGROUND Field and tunnel cage studies were undertaken to determine the extent to which honey bees foraging on citrus blossoms were exposed to imidacloprid and its metabolites when citrus trees were treated with soil applications of the insecticide. Residues were measured by LC/MS/MS in nectar and pollen samples from trees treated up to 232 days prior to(More)
Predation ofAphis pomi DeGeer [Hom.: Aphididae] byAphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) [Dipt.: Cecidomyiidae] was simulated in Michigan apple orchards using a computer and output validated against field data collected from sleeve cages enclosing aphid infested apple terminals. Lower and upper temperature thresholds for development were 2.9 and 35°C for nymphs(More)
In southern California, the sterile insect technique has been used since 1994 to prevent establishment of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This method involves the continual mass release of sterile flies, which suppress or eliminate any introduced wild fly populations. In addition, Jackson traps baited with trimedlure are(More)
Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Because mass production of GWSS is expensive and labor-intensive, a factitious host that is more economical to produce is desirable(More)