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In 1996, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied almost exclusively on biological control to strategies dependent on insecticides to maintain thrips densities below economically damaging levels. By 1998, average losses due to thrips feeding damage in(More)
A competitive ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique was evaluated for quantifying titres of imidacloprid in homogenates of leaf discs sampled from avocado plants treated with systemic applications of imidacloprid 240 g litre(-1) SC (Admire). Matrix effects were evident with undiluted leaf tissue homogenates, but these were effectively(More)
BACKGROUND Field and tunnel cage studies were undertaken to determine the extent to which honey bees foraging on citrus blossoms were exposed to imidacloprid and its metabolites when citrus trees were treated with soil applications of the insecticide. Residues were measured by LC/MS/MS in nectar and pollen samples from trees treated up to 232 days prior to(More)
Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be(More)
A 2-yr study was conducted in a citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cultivar Valencia) to determine the influence of plant water stress on the population dynamics of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar). Experimental treatments included irrigation at 100% of the crop evapotranspiration rate (ET(c)) and continuous(More)
Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Because mass production of GWSS is expensive and labor-intensive, a factitious host that is more economical to produce is desirable(More)
Avocado thrips arrived in California in 1996. Since then, we have made substantial progress in our understanding of this pest. We now know the area of origin of the avocado thrips and have compiled an inventory of other potential pest thrips species on avocados in Mexico and Central America. Trials have helped us to identify several selective insecticides(More)
Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide(More)
Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease (PD), a serious disease in grapevines, and grapevine cultivars vary in susceptibility to X. fastidiosa in the field. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs has not been clearly elucidated. To explore possible mechanisms, X. fastidiosa cells from a PD strain were grown in pure xylem fluid of PD-susceptible(More)
The efficacies of four systemic neonicotinoid insecticides applied to potted avocado trees at manufacturer-recommended rates were assessed against the avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara. At the time of treatment, fully expanded first-flush young leaves were tagged for identification, and a proportion of these leaves was used in bioassays with(More)