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Epidemiologic data indicate that cigarette smoking is associated with an important anti-estrogenic effect, and increased hepatic metabolism has been suggested as a possible mechanism. We examined the hypothesis that cigarette smoking in women induces an increase in estradiol 2-hydroxylation. This irreversible metabolic pathway yields 2-hydroxyestrogens,(More)
Endogenous and exogenous estrogens undergo extensive oxidative metabolism by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. Certain drugs and xenobiotics have been found to be potent inducers of estrogen hydroxylating enzymes with C-2 hydroxylase induction being greater than that of C-16 hydroxylase. Oxygenated estrogen metabolites have different biological activities,(More)
Premenopausal female smokers show significantly increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation, which may account in part for the anti-estrogenic effects of cigarette smoking. We have measured five major urinary estrogens, including estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 alpha OHE1), estriol (E3), and 2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE1), in premenopausal female(More)
Estradiol metabolism in 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 29 normal controls was studied by measurement of urinary metabolites after injection of labeled 3H-estradiol. Patients with SLE manifested increased 16-hydroxylation of estrone. Diseases men differed from diseases women to the extent that only 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone was(More)
Two patients with long-standing idiopathic chronic constipation, which responded only to large daily doses of laxatives and additional suppositories and enemas, were treated with the specific opioid antagonist, naloxone, on a single-blind crossover basis. Both patients responded to naloxone treatment, with increased passage of faeces and increased wet and(More)
From these results we may conclude that estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation is highly correlated with tumor incidence, and that the reaction is partly regulated by MMTV and the rest by genetic influences. Elevated hydroxylation appears to be an autosomal dominant trait that is highly specific for estradiol. It is also pertinent that the product of the 16(More)
In this report, we describe our findings on the relationship between estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation and mammary tumor incidence. A close correlation between the two has been demonstrated with 16-hydroxylation being elevated in strains with a high incidence of tumors, such as RIII and C3H, and low in strains with a low incidence of cancer, such as C57BL.(More)