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Algorithms for data-driven learning of domain-specific overcomplete dictionaries are developed to obtain maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori dictionary estimates based on the use of Bayesian models with concave/Schur-concave (CSC) negative log priors. Such priors are appropriate for obtaining sparse representations of environmental signals within an(More)
We compare machine learning methods applied to a difficult real-world problem: predicting computer hard-drive failure using attributes monitored internally by individual drives. The problem is one of detecting rare events in a time series of noisy and nonparametrically-distributed data. We develop a new algorithm based on the multiple-instance learning(More)
Convolutional networks have achieved a great deal of success in high-level vision problems such as object recognition. Here we show that they can also be used as a general method for low-level image processing. As an example of our approach, convolutional networks are trained using gradient learning to solve the problem of restoring noisy or degraded(More)
—Improved methods are proposed for disk-drive failure prediction. The SMART (Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology) failure prediction system is currently implemented in disk-drives. Its purpose is to predict the near-term failure of an individual hard disk-drive, and issue a backup warning to prevent data loss. Two experimental tests of SMART show only(More)
Information storage reliability and security is addressed by using personal computer disk drives in enterprise-class nearline and archival storage systems. The low cost of these serial ATA (SATA) PC drives is a tradeoff against drive reliability design and demonstration test levels, which are higher in the more expensive SCSI and Fibre Channel drives. This(More)
Many image segmentation algorithms first generate an affinity graph and then partition it. We present a machine learning approach to computing an affinity graph using a convolutional network (CN) trained using ground truth provided by human experts. The CN affinity graph can be paired with any standard partitioning algorithm and improves segmentation(More)
Images can be coded accurately using a sparse set of vectors from a learned overcomplete dictionary, with potential applications in image compression and feature selection for pattern recognition. We present a survey of algorithms that perform dictionary learning and sparse coding and make three contributions. First, we compare our overcomplete dictionary(More)
We present a hierarchical architecture and learning algorithm for visual recognition and other visual inference tasks such as imagination, reconstruction of occluded images, and expectation-driven segmentation. Using properties of biological vision for guidance, we posit a stochastic generative world model and from it develop a simplified world model (SWM)(More)
This study investigated the activity-set hypothesis in reducing warm-up decrement. With regard to the hypothesis, it is predicted that warm-up decrement, which is a temporary loss of skill performance following rest, could be reduced if an appropriate reinstating activity were engaged in just prior to the resumption of practice. Seventy-five subjects were(More)
—FOCUSS is an Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares approximation used to find the inverse solution of an underde-termined linear system when the source vector is assumed to be sparse. It also provides an iterative descent method used to solve for an unknown dictionary. We describe three extensions to the FOCUSS model: First a choice of generalized p-norm(More)