Joseph F. Mudge

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Null hypothesis significance testing has been under attack in recent years, partly owing to the arbitrary nature of setting α (the decision-making threshold and probability of Type I error) at a constant value, usually 0.05. If the goal of null hypothesis testing is to present conclusions in which we have the highest possible confidence, then the only(More)
Null hypothesis significance testing is one of the most widely used forms of statistical testing in environmental toxicology. In this short communication, the authors show that the reporting of statistical information when using null hypothesis significance testing is frequently inadequate in environmental toxicology research. The authors demonstrate this(More)
Assessments of potential exposure to fullerenes and their derivatives in the environment are important, given their increasing production and use. Our study focused on fate processes that determine the movement and bioavailability of fullerenes in soil. We evaluated the sorption, biodegradation, and plant uptake of C60 fullerene using (14)C-labeled C60(More)
Concentrations of glyphosate observed in the environment are generally lower than those found to exert toxicity on aquatic organisms in the laboratory. Toxicity is often tested in the absence of other expected co-occurring contaminants. By examining changes in the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities of shallow, partitioned wetlands over a 5 month(More)
Setting optimal significance levels that minimize Type I and Type II errors allows for more transparent and well-considered statistical decision making compared to the traditional α = 0.05 significance level. We use the optimal α approach to re-assess conclusions reached by three recently published tests of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis, which(More)
Using the traditional α = 0.05 significance level for null hypothesis significance tests makes assumptions about relative costs of Type I vs relevant Type II errors and inflates their combined probabilities. We have examined the results of 1254 monitoring tests conducted under the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program from 1992 to 2003,(More)
Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination(More)
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently received increased research attention, particularly concerning aquatic organisms and in regions of exposure to aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). Air Force bases historically applied AFFFs in the interest of fire training exercises and have since expressed concern for PFAS contamination in biota from water(More)