Joseph F John

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A PCR technique to differentiate pathogenic enteric Escherichia coli strains in a field setting was evaluated. Among 76 children with acute diarrhea, this technique identified 12 children (16%) with enterotoxigenic E. coli, 6 (8%) with enteropathogenic E. coli, and 1 (1%) with enteroinvasive E. coli infection. Compared with the conventional assays, the PCR(More)
Antimicrobial resistance results in increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of health care. Prevention of the emergence of resistance and the dissemination of resistant microorganisms will reduce these adverse effects and their attendant costs. Appropriate antimicrobial stewardship that includes optimal selection, dose, and duration of treatment, as well(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major nosocomial pathogen in community hospitals, long-term-care facilities, and tertiary care hospitals. The basic mechanism of resistance is alteration in penicillin-binding proteins of the organism. Methods for isolation by culture and typing of the organism are reviewed. MRSA colonization(More)
Risk factors and mortality associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infection or colonization were examined at a tertiary care hospital by comparing 145 patients who had VREF isolates (cases) to 145 patients with vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium (VSEF) isolates (controls). The number of deaths per 100 person-days of(More)
OBJECTIVE. Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) cause substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Items in the environment harbor microorganisms that may contribute to HAIs. Reduction in surface bioburden may be an effective strategy to reduce HAIs. The inherent biocidal properties of copper surfaces offer a theoretical advantage to conventional cleaning,(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen in hospitals. Current antimicrobial regimens for eradicating colonizing strains are not well defined and are often complicated by the emergence of resistance. The combination of novobiocin plus rifampin in vitro and in vivo was found to prevent the emergence of resistant populations of(More)
Between October 1985 and August 1986, 49 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from 26 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Medical University Hospital, Charleston, SC. Sites of MRSA isolation were the respiratory tract (33%); nasopharynx (12%); gastrointestinal tract (12%); eye (8%); blood (6%);(More)
Methicillin-resistance in staphylococci results from expression of mecA, which occurs in a larger region of DNA (the mec region) lacking counterpart in susceptible cells. The mec region harbors in addition a highly polymorphic element, the dru (direct repeat unit) segment, which in an early S. aureus strain, BB270, was found to contain 10 imperfect 40(More)
BACKGROUND Current antibiotic therapies for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea have limitations, including progression to severe disease, recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea, and selection for nosocomial pathogens. Tolevamer, a soluble, high-molecular weight, anionic polymer that binds C. difficile toxins A and B is a unique nonantibiotic(More)
Tefibazumab (Aurexis), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface-expressed adhesion protein clumping factor A, is under development as adjunctive therapy for serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Sixty patients with documented S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) were randomized and received either tefibazumab at 20 mg/kg of body weight as a(More)