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The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001,(More)
Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport. However, the precise(More)
The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside(More)
[1] We examine signatures of two types of waves that may be involved in the acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belts. We have compiled a database of ULF wave power from SAMNET and IMAGE ground magnetometer stations for 1987– 2001. Long-duration, comprehensive, in situ VLF/ELF chorus wave observations are not available, so we(More)
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found(More)
Early observations indicated that the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep 'slot' region largely(More)
Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the(More)
Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the mag-netosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He 2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor(More)
Multiple discrete-energy ion bands observed by the Polar satellite in the inner magnetosphere on 9 Febru-ary 1998 were investigated by means of particle simulation with a realistic model of the convection electric field. The multiple bands appeared in the energy vs. L spectrum in the 1–100 keV range when Polar traveled in the heart of the ring current along(More)