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The tandem pore domain K channel family mediates background K currents present in excitable cells. Currents passed by certain members of the family are enhanced by volatile anesthetics, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of anesthesia. The newest member of the family, termed TRESK (TWIK [tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying channel]-related spinal cord(More)
BACKGROUND Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from(More)
Arginine 347 in the sixth transmembrane domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a site of four cystic fibrosis-associated mutations. To better understand the function of Arg-347 and to learn how mutations at this site disrupt channel activity, we mutated Arg-347 to Asp, Cys, Glu, His, Leu, or Lys and examined single-channel(More)
The cytosolic nucleotide binding domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (NBD1 and NBD2) mediate ATP-dependent opening and closing of the Cl- channel pore. To learn more about NBD structure and function, we introduced a cysteine residue into the Walker A motif or the LSGGQ motif of each NBD and examined modification by(More)
Phosphorylation of the R domain regulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel activity. Earlier studies suggested that the R domain controls activity via more than one mechanism; a phosphorylated R domain may stimulate activity, and an unphosphorylated R domain may prevent constitutive activity, i.e. opening with ATP alone.(More)
BACKGROUND Etomidate is a rapidly acting sedative-hypnotic that provides hemodynamic stability. It causes prolonged suppression of adrenocortical steroid synthesis; therefore, its clinical utility and safety are limited. The authors describe the results of studies to define the pharmacology of(More)
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contains multiple membrane spanning sequences that form a Cl- channel pore and cytosolic domains that control the opening and closing of the channel. The fourth intracellular loop (ICL4), which connects the tenth and eleventh transmembrane spans, has a primary sequence that is highly conserved(More)
TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+)-1 (TASK-1 [KCNK3]) and TASK-3 (KCNK9) are tandem pore (K(2P)) potassium (K) channel subunits expressed in carotid bodies and the brainstem. Acidic pH values and hypoxia inhibit TASK-1 and TASK-3 channel function, and halothane enhances this function. These channels have putative roles in ventilatory regulation and volatile(More)
BACKGROUND Etomidate is a sedative hypnotic that is often used in critically ill patients because it provides superior hemodynamic stability. However, it also binds with high affinity to 11beta-hydroxylase, potently suppressing the synthesis of steroids by the adrenal gland that are necessary for survival. The authors report the results of studies to define(More)
Tandem pore domain (2P) K channels constitute the most diverse family of K channels and are responsible for background (leak or baseline) K currents. Of the 15 human 2P K channels, TASK-1, TASK-2, and TASK-3 are uniquely sensitive to physiologic pH changes as well as being inhibited by local anesthetics and activated by volatile anesthetics. In this study(More)