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BACKGROUND Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from(More)
The tandem pore domain K channel family mediates background K currents present in excitable cells. Currents passed by certain members of the family are enhanced by volatile anesthetics, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of anesthesia. The newest member of the family, termed TRESK (TWIK [tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying channel]-related spinal cord(More)
Tandem pore domain (2P) K channels constitute the most diverse family of K channels and are responsible for background (leak or baseline) K currents. Of the 15 human 2P K channels, TASK-1, TASK-2, and TASK-3 are uniquely sensitive to physiologic pH changes as well as being inhibited by local anesthetics and activated by volatile anesthetics. In this study(More)
TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+)-1 (TASK-1 [KCNK3]) and TASK-3 (KCNK9) are tandem pore (K(2P)) potassium (K) channel subunits expressed in carotid bodies and the brainstem. Acidic pH values and hypoxia inhibit TASK-1 and TASK-3 channel function, and halothane enhances this function. These channels have putative roles in ventilatory regulation and volatile(More)
TASK-3 (KCNK9) tandem-pore potassium channels provide a volatile anesthetic-activated and Gα(q) protein- and acidic pH-inhibited potassium conductance important in neuronal excitability. Met-159 of TASK-3 is essential for anesthetic activation and may contribute to the TASK-3 anesthetic binding site(s). We hypothesized that covalent occupancy of an(More)
UNLABELLED TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel) is the most recently characterized member of the tandem-pore domain potassium channel (K2P) family. Human TRESK is potently activated by halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, making it the most sensitive volatile anesthetic-activated K2P channel yet described. Herein, we compare the(More)
The TWIK-related, Acid Sensing K (TASK-2; KCNK5) potassium channel is a member of the tandem pore (2P) family of potassium channels and mediates an alkaline pH-activated, acid pH-inhibited, outward-rectified potassium conductance. In previous work, we demonstrated TASK-2 protein expression in newborn rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). In this study, we(More)
We synthesized the R- and S-enantiomers of ethyl 1-(1-(4-(3-((trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate), or TFD-etomidate, a novel photoactivable derivative of the stereoselective general anesthetic etomidate (R-(2-ethyl 1-(phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate)). Anesthetic potency(More)
INTRODUCTION Etomidate is no longer administered as a continuous infusion for anesthetic maintenance or sedation, because it results in profound and persistent suppression of adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially lethal consequences in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that rapidly metabolized soft analogues of etomidate could be(More)
BACKGROUND Methoxycarbonyl etomidate is an ultrarapidly metabolized etomidate analog. It is metabolized to methoxycarbonyl etomidate carboxylic acid (MOC-ECA), which has a hypnotic potency that is 350-fold less than that of methoxycarbonyl etomidate. The authors explored the relationships between methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusion duration, recovery time,(More)