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Heme and iron metabolism are of considerable interest and importance in normal brain function as well as in neurodegeneration and neuropathologically following traumatic injury and hemorrhagic stroke. After a cerebral hemorrhage, large numbers of hemoglobin-containing red blood cells are released into the brain's parenchyma and/or subarachnoid space. After(More)
Several case reports describe children with global developmental delay who have brain creatine deficiency, where the deficiency was due to a lack of creatine transport into the brain or altered creatine synthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of males with developmental delay referred for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(More)
In this study, we examine the effects of reperfusion on the activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and assess the relationship between MMP activation during reperfusion and neurovascular injury. Ischemia was produced using suture-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The MMP activation was examined with in situ and gel zymography. Injury(More)
BACKGROUND The relative efficacy of the addition of induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy alone for patients with head and neck cancer is unclear. The PARADIGM study is a multicentre open-label phase 3 study comparing the use of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent(More)
Many factors have been postulated to cause delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm, including hemoglobin, nitric oxide, endothelin, and free radicals. We propose that free radicals (because of the high levels that are produced in the blood clots surrounding blood vessels after SAH) act on bilirubin, biliverdin, and possibly heme to produce(More)
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral vasospasm has long been recognized as an important cause of poor outcome after an otherwise successful treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, but it remains a pathophysiological enigma despite intensive research for more than half a century. METHOD Summarized in this review are highlights of research from North America,(More)
Ischemic brain and peripheral white blood cells release cytokines, chemokines and other molecules that activate the peripheral white blood cells after stroke. To assess gene expression in these peripheral white blood cells, whole blood was examined using oligonucleotide microarrays in 15 patients at 2.4+/-0.5, 5 and 24 h after onset of ischemic stroke and(More)
The authors have previously shown that bilirubin-oxidation products (BOXes) are present in CSF of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with vasospasm, and that BOXes cause vasoconstriction in vitro. This study determined whether BOXes cause vasospasm in vivo. Identical volumes of either lysed blood or standardized amounts of BOXes were injected into the(More)
Creatine (Cr) is a guanidino compound required for rapid replenishment of ATP in cells with a high-energy demand. In humans, mutations in the Cr transporter (CRT;SLC6A8) prevent Cr entry into tissue and result in a significant intellectual impairment, epilepsy, and aphasia. The lack of Cr on both the whole body and cellular metabolism was evaluated in Crt(More)
Although intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has no proven treatment, well-designed studies using animal models of ICH may lead to the development of novel therapies. We briefly review current animal models of ICH. Furthermore, we discuss how these models may be utilized and targeted to facilitate translation of preclinical findings to the clinical arena.