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Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalog the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857(More)
The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed(More)
We show that the times separating the birth of benign, invasive, and metastatic tumor cells can be determined by analysis of the mutations they have in common. When combined with prior clinical observations, these analyses suggest the following general conclusions about colorectal tumorigenesis: (i) It takes approximately 17 years for a large benign tumor(More)
Next-generation sequencing technologies generate a significant number of short reads that are utilized to address a variety of biological questions. However, quite often, sequencing reads tend to have low quality at the 3’ end and are generated from the repetitive regions of a genome. It is unclear how different alignment programs perform under these(More)
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular(More)
Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The CD40 pathway is a key mediator of inflammation and autoimmunity. We investigated cell adhesion molecule (CAM) up-regulation and chemokine production by CD40-positive human intestinal fibroblasts (HIF) and microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) induced by CD40 ligand (CD40L)-positive T cells and soluble CD40L and their effect on(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition frequently associated with esophagitis and motor abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, may be implicated because they reduce esophageal muscle contractility, but these results derive from in vitro or animal models of(More)
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants(More)
Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) allows interferometer topologies with simplified system construction and handling. Problems of dispersion and polarization matching between the sample and reference arms, as well as beamsplitter spectral non-uniformity, are mitigated when the interferometer is wholly contained in the endoscope tip. A(More)