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The responses of cerebral precapillary vessels to changes in arterial blood pressure were studied in anesthetized cats equipped with cranial windows for the direct observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Vessel responses were found to be size dependent. Between mean arterial pressures of 110 and 160 mmHg autoregulatory adjustments(More)
Spartina anglica is a classical example of recent alloploid speciation. It arose during the end of the nineteenth century in England by hybridization between the indigenous Spartina maritima and the introduced East-American Spartina alterniflora. Duplication of the hybrid genome (Spartina x townsendii) gave rise to a vigorous allopolyploid involved in(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex pathophysiological cascade, leading to cell death. A major factor in the pathogenesis of TBI is neuronal overloading with calcium, causing the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP), which consequently inhibit normal mitochondrial function. The immunosuppressant Cyclosporin A (CsA) has(More)
The objective of this study was to examine if the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels play an important role in ischemic preconditioning (PC) in the rat heart. A second goal was to test the role of acetylcholine (ACh) in mimicking PC and test if it could be blocked by KATP antagonist. Glibenclamide, a specific antagonist of the KATP channel, was(More)
Heat shock (HS) results in the expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) and confers tolerance against subsequent ischemic injury. We examined the extent of myocardial protection in vivo, and determined the level of hsp expression induced by HS as a function of time. Anesthetized rats were subjected to HS by raising core temperature to 42 degrees C for 15 min(More)
OBJECTIVE Failure of energy metabolism after traumatic brain injury may be a major factor limiting outcome. Although glucose is the primary metabolic substrate in the healthy brain, the well documented surge in tissue lactate after traumatic brain injury suggests that lactate may provide an energy need that cannot be met by glucose. We hypothesized,(More)
Methods for implatation of cranial windows for the direct observations of the pial microcirculation in experimental animals are described in detail. These techniques are suitable for both acute experiments in anesthetized animals and chronic implantation permitting several months of observation in awake animals. Experience over several years shows that(More)
Background. In previous studies, it has been shown that intravenous lactate therapy can improve brain neurochemistry, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation and outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. In this study, we examined: (1) four L-lactate concentrations to determine the optimal therapeutic dose post TBI in terms of cognitive function;(More)
OBJECT Currently, there are no good clinical tools to identify the onset of secondary brain injury and/or hypoxia after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate simultaneously early changes of cerebral metabolism, acid-base homeostasis, and oxygenation, as well as their interrelationship after TBI and arterial hypoxia. METHODS(More)
We evaluated the effect of general anesthesia induced by 45 mg/kg iv pentobarbital sodium or by 75 mg/kg iv alpha-chloralose plus 500 mg/kg iv urethan on the response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia in rabbits equipped with chronically implanted cranial windows for the observation of the cerebral microcirculation. Both types of anesthetic induced(More)