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Understanding how fears are acquired is an important step in translating basic research to the treatment of fear-related disorders. However, understanding how learned fears are diminished may be even more valuable. We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected(More)
Dysregulation of the fear system is at the core of many psychiatric disorders. Much progress has been made in uncovering the neural basis of fear learning through studies in which associative emotional memories are formed by pairing an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS; e.g., a tone) to an unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a shock).(More)
Recent efforts to translate basic research to the treatment of clinical disorders have led to a growing interest in exploring mechanisms for diminishing fear. This research has emphasized two approaches: extinction of conditioned fear, examined across species; and cognitive emotion regulation, unique to humans. Here, we sought to examine the similarities(More)
Research on the neural systems underlying emotion in animal models over the past two decades has implicated the amygdala in fear and other emotional processes. This work stimulated interest in pursuing the brain mechanisms of emotion in humans. Here, we review research on the role of the amygdala in emotional processes in both animal models and humans. The(More)
Echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in normal human subjects to investigate the role of the amygdala in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction. A simple discrimination procedure was employed in which activation to a visual cue predicting shock (CS+) was compared with activation to another cue presented alone (CS-). CS+ and(More)
Cellular theories of memory consolidation posit that new memories require new protein synthesis in order to be stored. Systems consolidation theories posit that the hippocampus has a time-limited role in memory storage, after which the memory is independent of the hippocampus. Here, we show that intra-hippocampal infusions of the protein synthesis inhibitor(More)
Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs). Discrete or(More)
Signaled active avoidance (AA) paradigms train subjects to prevent an aversive outcome by performing a learned behavior during the presentation of a conditioned cue. This complex form of conditioning involves pavlovian and instrumental components, which produce competing behavioral responses that must be reconciled for the subject to successfully avoid an(More)
The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is the first site in the amygdala where the plasticity underlying fear conditioning could occur. We simultaneously recorded from multiple LA neurons in freely moving rats during fear conditioning trials in which tones were paired with foot shocks. Conditioning significantly increased the magnitude of tone-elicited(More)
Single neurons were recorded in freely behaving rats during fear conditioning from areas of auditory cortex that project to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). The latency and rate of conditioning and extinction were analyzed, and the results were compared to previous recordings from LA itself. Auditory cortex neurons took more trials to learn, and(More)