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GABARAP recognizes and binds the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, interacts with microtubules and the N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor, and is proposed to function in GABA(A) receptor trafficking and postsynaptic localization. We have determined the crystal structure of human GABARAP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure comprises an N-terminal(More)
Cancer cells exhibit several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cell growth and proliferation. Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of serine and glycine. Here we describe a new rheostat-like(More)
Advances in understanding how GroEL binds to non-native proteins are reported. Conformational flexibility in the GroEL apical domain, which could account for the variety of substrates that GroEL binds, is illustrated by comparison of several independent crystallographic structures of apical domain constructs that show conformational plasticity in helices H(More)
Inhibitors of the chaperone Hsp90 are potentially useful as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. This paper describes an application of fragment screening to Hsp90 using a combination of NMR and high throughput X-ray crystallography. The screening identified an aminopyrimidine with affinity in the high micromolar range and subsequent structure-based design(More)
Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) are currently generating significant interest in clinical development as potential treatments for cancer. In a preceding publication (DOI: 10.1021/jm100059d ) we describe Astex's approach to screening fragments against Hsp90 and the subsequent optimization of two hits into leads with(More)
Here we report a highly conserved new binding site located at the interface between the protease and helicase domains of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein. Using a chemical lead, identified by fragment screening and structure-guided design, we demonstrate that this site has a regulatory function on the protease activity via an allosteric mechanism. We(More)
The clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynaptic terminals is a critical requirement for efficient neurotransmission and neuronal communication. This process is facilitated by adaptor proteins, which bridge the postsynaptic receptors and the underlying cytoskeleton. One such molecule, the GABAA receptor-associated protein, GABARAP, was(More)
Higher throughput thermodynamic measurements can provide value in structure-based drug discovery during fragment screening, hit validation, and lead optimization. Enthalpy can be used to detect and characterize ligand binding, and changes that affect the interaction of protein and ligand can sometimes be detected more readily from changes in the enthalpy of(More)
A novel Type II kinase inhibitor chemotype has been identified for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) using structure-based ligand design. The strategy involved structural characterization of an induced DFG-out pocket by protein-ligand X-ray crystallography and incorporation of a slender linkage capable of bypassing a large gate-keeper residue,(More)
Fragment-based drug design was successfully applied to maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). A low affinity (160 μM) fragment hit was identified, which bound to the hinge region with an atypical binding mode, and this was optimized using structure-based design into a low-nanomolar and cell-penetrant inhibitor, with a good selectivity profile,(More)