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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can progress to an acute lung inflammation known as postperfusion syndrome. We developed a two-phase hypothesis: first, that SIRS, as indicated by elevated cytokines post-CPB, would be correlated with postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (Phase I), and second, that(More)
The mechanical derangements in the acutely injured lung have long been ascribed, in large part, to altered mechanical function at the alveolar level. This has not been directly demonstrated, however, so we investigated the issue in a rat model of overinflation injury. After thoracotomy, rats were mechanically ventilated with either 1) high tidal volume (Vt)(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the mechanism of dynamic alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) in both the normal and acutely injured lung; to investigate the alteration in alveolar mechanics secondary to acute lung injury as a mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); and to examine the hypothesis that(More)
The alveolar structure, a space-filling branching duct system with alveolar openings, is one of the most complicated structures in the living body. Although its deformation during ventilation is the basic knowledge for lung physiology, there has been no consensus on it because of technical difficulties of dynamic 3-dimensional observation in vivo. It is(More)
Inappropriate mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and increase the morbidity and mortality. Reopening collapsed lung units may significantly reduce VILI, but the mechanisms governing lung recruitment are unclear. We thus investigated the dynamics of lung recruitment at(More)
BACKGROUND Ventilator strategies that maintain an "open lung" have shown promise in treating hypoxemic patients. We compared three "open lung" strategies with standard of care low tidal volume ventilation and hypothesized that each would diminish physiologic and histopathologic evidence of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Acute(More)
INTRODUCTION One potential mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is due to shear stresses associated with alveolar instability (recruitment/derecruitment). It has been postulated that the optimal combination of tidal volume (Vt) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) stabilizes alveoli, thus diminishing recruitment/derecruitment and(More)
BACKGROUND Septic shock is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, a serious clinical problem exacerbated by improper mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) can exacerbate the lung injury caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality. In this study, we asked the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether pathological alterations in alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape with ventilation) at a similar level of lung injury vary depending on the cause of injury. DESIGN AND SETTING Prospective controlled animal study in a university laboratory. SUBJECTS 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-550 g).(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether individual alveolar recruitment/derecruitment (R/D) is correlated with the lower and upper inflections points on the inflation and deflation limb of the whole-lung pressure-volume (P-V) curve. DESIGN AND SETTING Prospective experimental study in an animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS Five anesthetized rats subjected to(More)