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The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be(More)
By means of controlled experimental manipulation of populations in a natural field situation, I was able to demonstrate the mechanism of operation of interspecific competition between two species of barnacles , as well as the influence of predation on the intensity of this competition. [The SCI ® indicates that this paper has been cited over 145 times since(More)
nfectious diseases have recently caused substantial community and ecosystem-wide impacts in marine communities. A long-spined sea urchin disease virtually eradicated urchins from the Caribbean and facilitated a coral to algal shift on many reefs (Hughes et al. 1994). Coral diseases , such as white band (Figure 1), white plague, white pox, and aspergillosis(More)
Corals display a wide range of complex life histories. The evolutionary consequences of factors such as clonality, indeterminate growth, asexual reproduction coupled with various (sexual) breeding systems, different levels of gene flow, and strongly overlapping generations have only just begun to be explored. We identify a series of problems and areas for(More)
A variety of ecological processes influence diversity and species composition in natural communities. Most of these processes, whether abiotic or biotic, differentially filter individuals from birth to death, thereby altering species' relative abundances. Nonrandom outcomes could accrue throughout ontogeny, or the processes that generate them could be(More)
Although birds and mammals play important roles in several mechanisms hypothesized to maintain plant diversity in species-rich habitats, there have been few long-term, community-level tests of their importance. We excluded terrestrial birds and mammals from fourteen 6 x 7.5 m plots in Australian primary tropical rain forest and compared recruitment and(More)
Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the(More)
While density dependence is a popular topic of research in population ecology, it has received much less attention at the community level. Using 27 years of data from Heron Island, on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we develop a matrix model of coral community dynamics that shows that community-level density dependence does occur and that it is fairly(More)