Joseph Connell

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The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be(More)
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 Trends in the health of coral reefs worldwide were examined by surveying the literature for quantitative studies of coral abundance that were at least four years long and contained data on variance among samples. Of the 65 examples in which sufficient data exist to make a judgment, coral cover did not decline in 29%, with fewer declines in the Indo-Pacific(More)
Corals display a wide range of complex life histories. The evolutionary consequences of factors such as clonality, indeterminate growth, asexual reproduction coupled with various (sexual) breeding systems, different levels of gene flow, and strongly overlapping generations have only just begun to be explored. We identify a series of problems and areas for(More)
A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the infl uence of seven different levels of irrigation applied to ‘Arbequina I-18’ olive (Olea europaea L.) trees grown in a super-high-density orchard (1,656 trees/ha) in the Sacramento Valley of California. Water was applied differentially by drip irrigation at rates of 15%, 25%, 40%, 57%, 71%, 89%, and 107%(More)
Maximum height was assessed for tree species from seven temperate deciduous forests, one subtropical forest and one tropical forest and combined with published tree heights for three other tropical forests. The temperate deciduous forests showed a strong concentration of canopy species and a dearth of subcanopy species. In contrast, the four tropical(More)
Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb (syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Amygdalus communis L.)] flower bud development for three cultivars (Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte) from four California locations (which span the range of almond production in California) for 2 years, and for ‘Nonpareil’ in a single(More)
munityand ecosystem-wide impacts in marine communities. A long-spined sea urchin disease virtually eradicated urchins from the Caribbean and facilitated a coral to algal shift on many reefs (Hughes et al. 1994). Coral diseases, such as white band (Figure 1), white plague, white pox, and aspergillosis (Figure 2), have caused major changes in Caribbean reef(More)
Although birds and mammals play important roles in several mechanisms hypothesized to maintain plant diversity in species-rich habitats, there have been few long-term, community-level tests of their importance. We excluded terrestrial birds and mammals from fourteen 6 x 7.5 m plots in Australian primary tropical rain forest and compared recruitment and(More)