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Associative stimulation has been shown to enhance excitability in the human motor cortex (Stefan et al. 2000); however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. An interventional paired associative stimulation (IPAS) was employed consisting of repetitive application of single afferent electric stimuli, delivered to the right median nerve, paired(More)
Metaplasticity refers to the activity-dependent modification of the ability of synapses to undergo subsequent potentiation or depression, and is thought to maintain homeostasis of cortical excitability. Continuous magnetic theta-burst stimulation (cTBS; 50 Hz-bursts of 3 subthreshold magnetic stimuli repeated at 5 Hz) is a novel repetitive magnetic(More)
Animal experiments suggest that cortical sensory representations may be remodelled as a consequence of changing synaptic efficacy by timing-dependent associative neuronal activity. Here we describe a timing-based associative form of plasticity in human somatosensory cortex. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was performed by combining repetitive median(More)
Synaptic plasticity is conspicuously dependent on the temporal order of the pre- and postsynaptic activity. Human motor cortical excitability can be increased by a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. Here we show that it can also be decreased by minimally changing the interval between the two associative stimuli. Corticomotor excitability of the(More)
Mirror neurons discharge with both action observation and action execution. It has been proposed that the mirror neuron system is instrumental in motor learning. The human primary motor cortex (M1) displays mirror activity in response to movement observation, is capable of forming motor memories, and is involved in motor learning. However, it is not known(More)
The role of attention in generating motor memories remains controversial principally because it is difficult to separate the effects of attention from changes in kinematics of motor performance. We attempted to disentangle attention from performance effects by varying attention while plasticity was induced in human primary motor cortex by external(More)
Noninvasive transcranial stimulation is being increasingly used by clinicians and neuroscientists to alter deliberately the status of the human brain. Important applications are the induction of virtual lesions (for example, transient dysfunction) to identify the importance of the stimulated brain network for a certain sensorimotor or cognitive task, and(More)
Analyzing the brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using electroencephalography (EEG) is a promising method for the assessment of functional cortical connectivity and excitability of areas accessible to this stimulation. However, until now it has been difficult to analyze the EEG responses during the several tens of milliseconds(More)
The combination of brain stimulation techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with CNS active drugs in humans now offers a unique opportunity to explore the physiologic effects of these substances in vivo in the human brain. Motor threshold, motor evoked potential size, motor evoked potential intensity curves, cortical silent period,(More)
Neuronal plasticity is to be kept within operational limits to serve its purpose as a safe memory system that shapes and focuses sensory and motor representations. Temporal and spatial properties of motor cortical plasticity were assessed in patients with writer's cramp using a model of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic(More)