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Current models of motor cortical plasticity, developed in studies on experimental animals, emphasize the importance of the conjoint activity of somatosensory afferents and intrinsic motor cortical circuits. The hypothesis that an enduring change in excitability in the cortical output circuitry can be induced in the human motor cortex by a paired-stimulation(More)
We studied the effects of low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on motor cortex excitability in humans. TMS at 0.1 Hz for 1 hour did not change cortical excitability. Stimulation at 0.9 Hz for 15 minutes (810 pulses), similar to the parameters used to induce long-term depression (LTD) in cortical slice preparations and in vivo animal(More)
Associative stimulation has been shown to enhance excitability in the human motor cortex (Stefan et al. 2000); however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. An interventional paired associative stimulation (IPAS) was employed consisting of repetitive application of single afferent electric stimuli, delivered to the right median nerve, paired(More)
Synaptic plasticity is conspicuously dependent on the temporal order of the pre- and postsynaptic activity. Human motor cortical excitability can be increased by a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. Here we show that it can also be decreased by minimally changing the interval between the two associative stimuli. Corticomotor excitability of the(More)
The process of acquiring motor skills through the sustained performance of complex movements is associated with neural plasticity. However, it is unknown whether even simple movements, repeated over a short period of time, are effective in inducing cortical representational changes. Whether the motor cortex can retain specific kinematic aspects of a(More)
Practicing movements results in improvement in performance and in plasticity of the motor cortex. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we studied use-dependent plasticity in human subjects premedicated with drugs that influence synaptic plasticity. Use-dependent plasticity was reduced substantially by dextromethorphan (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor(More)
Animal experiments suggest that cortical sensory representations may be remodelled as a consequence of changing synaptic efficacy by timing-dependent associative neuronal activity. Here we describe a timing-based associative form of plasticity in human somatosensory cortex. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was performed by combining repetitive median(More)
1. Blockade of uptake carriers of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to modulate inhibition in cortical slices of experimental animals, although little is known about this mechanism in vivo and, in particular, in humans. 2. The effects of blockade of GABA uptake were studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. In eight(More)
Metaplasticity refers to the activity-dependent modification of the ability of synapses to undergo subsequent potentiation or depression, and is thought to maintain homeostasis of cortical excitability. Continuous magnetic theta-burst stimulation (cTBS; 50 Hz-bursts of 3 subthreshold magnetic stimuli repeated at 5 Hz) is a novel repetitive magnetic(More)
Induction of a seizure in a normal subject with trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied in close succession suggested that short inter-train intervals, a parameter not considered in our previous safety studies, may not be safe. Here, we evaluate the safety of different inter-train intervals for rTMS in 10 healthy volunteers.(More)