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BACKGROUND An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in(More)
Defective dendritic cell (DC) function caused by abnormal differentiation of these cells is an important mechanism of tumor escape from immune system control. Previously, we have demonstrated that the number and function of DC were dramatically reduced in cancer patients. This effect was closely associated with accumulation of immature cells (ImC) in(More)
Defective dendritic cell (DC) function has been described previously in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. It can be an important factor in the escape of tumors from immune system control. However, the mechanism and clinical significance of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here, 93 patients with breast, head and neck, and lung cancer were investigated.(More)
PURPOSE The Cytokine Working Group conducted a randomized phase III trial to determine the value of outpatient interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alfa-2b (IFN) relative to high-dose (HD) IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were stratified for bone and liver metastases, primary tumor in place, and Eastern(More)
BACKGROUND The relative efficacy of the addition of induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy alone for patients with head and neck cancer is unclear. The PARADIGM study is a multicentre open-label phase 3 study comparing the use of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent(More)
2B1 is a bispecific murine monoclonal antibody (BsMAb) with specificity for the c-erbB-2 and Fc gamma RIII extracellular domains. This BsMAb promotes the targeted lysis of malignant cells overexpressing the c-erbB-2 gene product of the HER2/neu proto-oncogene by human natural killer cells and mononuclear phagocytes expressing the Fc gamma RIII A isoform. In(More)
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral vasospasm has long been recognized as an important cause of poor outcome after an otherwise successful treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, but it remains a pathophysiological enigma despite intensive research for more than half a century. METHOD Summarized in this review are highlights of research from North America,(More)
Patients with renal cell cancer (RCC) develop metastatic spread in approximately 33% of cases. The clinical management of patients with metastatic RCC is complicated by the lack of significant efficacy from available therapies. Common sites of metastases include the lung, liver, bone, brain, and adrenal gland, with case reports detailing the capacity of RCC(More)
BACKGROUND Brain metastases commonly develop in patients with melanoma and are a frequent cause of death of patients with this disease. Ipilimumab improves survival in patients with advanced melanoma. We aimed to investigate the safety and activity of this drug specifically in patients with brain metastases. METHODS Between July 31, 2008, and June 3,(More)
BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck, but in patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, EGFR targeting agents have displayed modest efficacy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis has been implicated as a mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR(More)